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$ipselus and Periander. (5.) Their next State Republic.
was that of a Republic ; during which they were
engaged in many Wars. (6.) Their sixch and Roman.
laft State was under the Romans, whose Consul
Lucius Mummius defeated them in Battle, and
burnt their Town.

ARGOS, which look'd upon itself to be the The State of most magnificent City in the World, was go- Argos Monar

chical.
vern'd by 18 Kings; the first was the Founder
thereof Inachus, and the last Agamemnon. These
reign’d from A, M. 2148, about the Space of 670
Years; at the End of which happen'd the Tro-
jan War.

LACEDEMON underwent four States. The fourfold (1.) A Monarcby, under si Kings; the first was

State of La

cedemon. Lelex the Founder about A. M. 2593. and the last Tifamene. (2.) The Heraclides, or Defcendants of Hercules; these were divided into the two Branches of Eurijlenes and Procles; they obtain'd the Kingdom by Lot, and 'tis said they began their Reign A. M. 2862. but 'tis uncertain how long it continued. (3.) Their third State was under four Kings, whose Power was moderated by 28 Gerontes or Senators appointed by the famous Lawgiver, Lycurgus ; the first was named Telecles, who began his Reign A. M. 3130. and the last was Theopompus. (4.) Their fourth State was under Kings, whose Power was check'd by five Eçbori, or Inspectors; the first of these Kings was Polydorus, who began his Reign A. M. 3260; and the 21st, or last of them, was Cleomenes III. He attempted to restore the Government founded by Lycurgus, kill'd the Ephori, took Argos and Part of Peloponnesus; but was at last defeated in Battle by Antigonus ; after which he retir'd into Egypt, and all the Glory of Sparta fell with him.

MYCENE

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Of Mycene. MYCENE was govern'd. by three Kings

from A. M. 2693 to 2831; the first of which was Perseus, and the last Orestes, whose Sons were dethron'd by the Heraclides, Kings of Lacedemon,

who subdued Mycene. Thebes.

THEBES, the principal City in Bæotia, was under the Government of many Kings, and great Men, whose Names are famous in fabulous History. The firit is said to be Calydnus, and next to him reign’d Ogyges, in whose Time all Greece was reported to be deluged. Then Cadmus is said to have come into Bæotia, and to have brought the Use of Letters with him out of Phænicia. After this we read of Ampbion, Q£dipus, &c. and last of all Xanthus; who being kill'd in Battle, the Tbebans renounc'd Monarchy, and chang'd the State to an Arijtocracy, or Democracy, as it was when the Perfan Em

pire overwhelm'd it. Troy.

TROr was under the Government of seven Kings, from Teucrus the first, to Priamus the last, for the Space of 300 Years, when it was

destroy'd by the Grecians. The Roman The History of the Roman Affairs is inState various. volv'd in Obscurity and Uncertainty, till the

Time when Romulus founded the City, from him call'd Rome, which is said to be about A. M. 3300. He form'd the State into a Monarcby, and was succeded by six Kings, the last of which was Tarquin, whom Brutus drove into Exile, and thus put an End to the Kingly Government, after a Period of about 240 Years. Upon this the Romans establish'd the Consular Government, which was a Mixture of Aritocracy and Democracy. This State continued till Julius Cæsar again reduced both it and all others to a Monarchical or Despotic Empire; which was in about 460 Years.

EGYPT

EGYPT was famous for its early Govern- Egypt's anment and great Succession of Kings, even from tient State. Ham, or at least from Mizraim his Son, who is reckon'd the first in the Chronology of the Egyptian Kings, and is said to have began his Reign there, A. M. 1900. From him to Ne{tanebus the Second, (who was the last of the Egyptian Race) they enumerate 37 Kings inclufively, and 1700 Years, or thereabouts. Nectanebus was expellid by Ochus the eighth Perfian Emperor, and his Kingdom subdued, and made a Part of the Persian (which soon after became the Grecian) Empire. But we return to take a concise View of

The PERSIAN EMPIRE, which was of the Persian the second of the four great and universal Mo- Empire, or,

2d Monarchy. narchies of the World. Cyrus, as has been observ'd, was the famous Founder thereof in the Year before Chrift 536. He was sirnam'd the Great, on account of his Heroic Actions, and great Atchievements. He was the Son of Cambyses King of Persia, by his Queen Mandana, the Daughter of Atyages King of Media, who was Son to Cyaxares, Grandson to Phraortes, and Great-grandson to Deioces, the first absolute King of Media. Cyrus reign'd 70 Years, and dying was succeded by his Son Cambyses; who invaded Egypt, vanquilh'd Psammiticus the King, and added that Kingdom to his Empire. He demolish'd the Egyptian God Apis ; murder'd his Brother Smerdis, and his sister ; and died in the eighth Year, infamous for Cruelty and Luft. On his Death (or indeed some time before) the Magi, or Magians, seized the Empire, and set up an Impostor, who they pretended was Smerdis the true Son of Cambyses ; but this false Smerdis having before lost his Ears, the Cheat was soon discover'd by his Wife Phedyma ;

and

and both he and all his Sect of the Magians were Nain. Note, the foregoing Cambyses and Smerdis were the Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes of the Scripture, Ezr. iv. 5, 6, 7. Smerdis being Nain the first Year of his Usurpation, they chose Darius Hystafpes King, under whoin the BabyLonians revolting, Darius besiegʻd them, and after twelve Months took their City, beat down the Walls, and gave the Inhabitants for a Spoil to the Persians. He made War on the Scythians with great Loss to himself, subdued Thrace, and afterward India. He reduced the Hellespont and Thracian Chersonesus. He fought a Battle with the Greeks, but was discomfited at Maraibon. After 36 Years Reign, he declares Xerxes his Succeffor, and dies. Xerxes throughly reduced Egypt after a Revolt; he march'd with a prodigious Army against Greece, and lost the Battle of Salamis. He destroy'd the Temple of Bel at Babylon. He was defeated in many Wars against the Grecians, by Armies commanded by the Generals Paufanias, Aristides, Themistocles, Cimon, &c. and at last was Nain by the Treason of Artabanus, in the 21st Year of his Reign. He was succeded by his Son Artaxerxes Longimanus (the Abasuerus of Ejber.) He New Ariabanus, and conquers bis Brother Hy/tafpes, and becomes thoroughly settled on the Throne. He divorced Vashti his Queen, and chose the Virgin Esther for his Concubine. He sent Ezra to govern Judæa. Egypt revolts, but is reduced. Haman is put to Death. Artaxerxes is defeated by Cimon the Atbenian General, and therefore makes a Peace with them. Nebeniab is fent Governor to Judæa, who repeoples the City, and reforms the Church and State of the jaws. Meto begins his Cycle. About the 36th Year of this Reign the Prophet Malacbi flourish'd. In

the

the 41st Year of his Reign Artaxerxes dying, was succeded by his Son Xerxes, who was prefently Nain by Sogdianus, and he by Ochus, who with the Crown affum'd the Name of Darius, and is commonly call's Darius Notbus. The Egyptians revolt from him, and make Amyrtæus their King. He dies in the 19th Year of his Reign, and is succeded by Artaxerxes Mnemon his eldest Son. He defends his Country against the Lacedemonians and Athenians, and makes a Peace with them. The Persians conquer Cyprus. Artaxerxes dies in the 46th Year of bis Reign, and is fucceded by Ocbus his Son. Upon his Succellion great Revolts are made in the Empire. Ocbus takes and destroys Sidon, he invades Egypt, expels King Neet anebus, and reduces all the Country. He is poison’d by Bagoas in the 2ift Year of his Reign, and Arogus or Arses made King in his stead. Bagoas also poison'd him in the second Year of his Reign, and made his Friend Codomannus to succede him ; who then affum'd the Royal Name of Darius, and perceiving Bagoas had a Design of poisoning him too, he put him to Deach. Alexander the Son of Pbilip, late King of Macedon, being made General of the Grecians against the Perhans, he defeated Darius in three Battles of Granicus, Cilicia, and Arbela, and conquer'd all Ajia, by which means the Empire of the Perfians was transferr'd to the Grecians, after it had itood about 205 Years, and in the 4th Year of Darius the last King thereof.

ALEXANDER, firnamed the Great, was of the Greborn at Pella in Macedonia, and gave many fur- cian Monarchy prizing Proofs of his Courage and Dexterity du- begun in Alexring his Youth; especially in mounting and Great. taming his Father's fierce Horse, which none of bis Equerries could do ; whereupon, when he

dismounted,

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