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America wa The first who effe&tually discover'd it was for discover'd

one CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, or Colon,
- by Christopher
Columbus. a Genoese, in a Voyage he undertook for that
At what Time. purpose by order of the King of Spain, A. D.1492,

and on August 2. On the 12th of Oftober follow.
ing he landed on the isle which he callid St. Sal-
vador ; and after this went an and made very
great Discoveries on the Continent, as well as of
many Inands; and return’d to Spain after seven
Months and eleven Days. In 1502, May 9, he
made a second Voyage to America, and enlarged
his former Discoveries very much: At length he
return'd, and meeting with ungrateful Usage, it
haften'd his Death, which happen’d May 20,

1506. Farther difco

AMERICUS VESPUCIUS, a Native of Flover'd by Ame- rence, made the next considerable Discoveries in ricus Vespu. two Voyages, the first of which he undertook it the Name of May 20. 1497, and the other May 11. 1500. America. From him the whole Continent was call'd Ame

rica; though North America is said to have been
discover'd by one Sebastian Cabot or Gabot, but
who he was, or of what Country, is not agreed;
besides the Discoveries of several of the Inland

Countries, &c. by various other Persons.
How and Upon the Discovery of this Part of the World,
whence Ame. it was found that every Part of the fame was in-
rica was pro- habited by the Human Species, as well as great
bably peopled. Variety of Beefts, &c. But bow they should come

bere is a Queftion difficult to solve, since it has
no known Communication with either Europe or
Afia. But yet many modern Authors and Travel-
lers are of opinion that it is either join'd on the
North Parts by Land, or separated by very nar-
row Streights from Asia ; and that therefore it
was easy, and is very probable that this part of
the World might be peopled by Colonies from
that, fome 3 or 400 Years after the Flood. 'Tis

certain

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certain the Phænicians had an early Acquaintance
with the Calliterides, the INands now call'd the
Azores, and from thence they might fail to Ame-
rica, as ’tis reasonably suppos'd large Colonies of
Scythians and Tartars did over the Eastern Sea,
and so peopled America on the West. But I
leave these Conjectures, and pass to view the State
of the more known Times of the World.

The Earth being divided among the Sons and The Beginning
Descendants of Noah, they soon began to forin of the Assyrian

Mnarchy by themselves into Societies, and to establish Laws

Nimrod.
and Governments, to make Conquests, and to aim
at Rule, Power, and Empire. The first who
began to signalize himself this way was Nimrod
the Son of Cush, and Grandson of Ham; of
whom Moses distinctly faith, He began to be a
mighty one upon the Earth. He first alter'd Pa-
ternal Government, and usurp'd Dominion over
others, and first invaded the Lot of Arpbaxad,
and made himself Master of the lower part of the
Land of Shinar ; he there built the City and Tower
of Babel or Babylon, and made it the seat of his
Kingdom ; to which he added Erech, Accad, and
Calneb in the same Land. He is said to have
reign’d 63 or 65 Years. He was succeded by
his Son Ninus, who built Nineveb; and joining
with the King of Affyria, they conquer'd Arme-
nia, Media, and (in 17 Years) all Asia, besides
the Indians and BaEtrians under the Command of
their famous King Oxyartis. He died after 52
Years Reign, and was succeded by his Wife Se-
miramis, who wore a Man's Habit. She con-
quered Ethiopia, made War on the Indians, and
was the most victorious of her Times. Her Son
Ninias New her after 42 Years, and succeded. He
is faid to be the first who drew up Soldiers in
Order of Battle, and to have 30 Successors in the
Empire ; of whom we know nothing, but that

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one Tutamus assisted Priamus King of Troy when besieged by the Greeks; and Sardanapalus, the last of them, who was the most voluptuous and effeminate Man in the World; and being besieged in Nineveh, at the End of two Years he

erected a Funeral Pile, and burnt himself therein. From the This ancient Asyrian, and first of MonarDisolution of chies, having govern’d Afia above 1300 Years, the Affyrian being dissolved on the Death of Sardanapalus, Empire arose fwo others,

there arose up two other Empires in its Stead, the viz. The Baby- one founded by Arbaces (the Scripture Tiglathlonian and Pileser) Governor of Media, and the other by Persian.

Belesis (the same as Nabonassar) Governor of Babylon, these being the two principal Commanders that headed the Conspiracy whereby the foriner Empire was brought to an End. These having, on their Success, divided the Empire between them, Belejis (who in Scripture is callid Baladan) had Babylon, Chaldea, and Arabia ; and Arbaces had Media, Persia, and the neighbouring Provinces. And these were the Beginnings of the Babylonian or Chaldean Empire, and that of the Medes and Persians. This happen'd in the 7th Year of the Building of Rome, and in the 747"} Year before Christ, and in the 12th Year of

Fotham King of Judab. Their Continue The Empire of Babylon and Chaldea subfifted ance and Dif- from its first Founder Belesis, to the Death of its folution. last Monarch Darius the Mede, and Uncle of

Cyrus, the Space of 210 Years. Also the Empire of the Alfyrians and Persiaiis continued entire from Arbaces to Sennacherib; in the 5th Year of whose Reign (and the 37.h of the Empire) the Medes revolted, and made Deioces King the next Year; and 30 Years after the Empire of Asyria was united with that of Babylon under Eserhadden, and in the 19th Year of Manajjah King of Judab; and thus continued till the predicted Cyrus Gene

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ral of the Medes and Persians arose and subdued
them both, then govern’d by Belshazzar (or
Nabonadius) and placed his Uncle Darius (or
Cyaxares) on the Throne of Babylon, who after
two Years died; when Cyrus himself assumed the
Imperial Power, and establish'd and founded the From whence
second Universal Monarchy, callid the Persian arole the second

Universal
Empire or Monarchy, which extended over all

Persian Empire Asia, and Part of Africa in time, from India to under Cyrus. Ethiopia inclusively.

In the 141st Year of the Babylonian Empire, The Kingdoms King Nebuchadnezzar, in the 20th Year of his of Israel and

Judah abo-
Reign, took Jerusalem, and carried the Jews

lifoed.
away into Captivity, where they continued 70
Years, till Cyrus again restored them to their
own Land, which was in the 536th Year before
Christ: And in the 26th Year of the Asyrian
Empire, and the 72 ist before Christ, Salmaneser
took Samaria, led away the ten Tribes of Israel
into Captivity in Asyria, and thereby extin-
guish'd the Kingdom of Israel; which was 115
Years before the Captivity of Judah.

During the Period from the first great Mo- of various
narchy founded by Nimrod, to the second or Nations con-
Persian Monarchy founded by Cyrus, several petty with the
Kingdoms in other Parts of the World, especi- Assyrian
ally in Africa, had their Rise, various Vicissitudes, Monarchy.
and Declensions at different Times; some of the
principal of which I shall name in the Order as
follows, beginning with Greece and its several
Republics.

GREECE contain'd, in its ancient Extent,
Hellas, Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, Thracia in
Part, Peloponnesus, and many Provinces in Asia.

IN HELLAS was founded the most ancient of the four-
Kingdom of Athens, which Authors observe to fold State of
have undergone four different States before the Athens.
Romans fubdued it, viz. (1.) Monarchy; in which Monarchy,

it

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it was govern’d by 17 Kings, from the Year of the World, or A. M. 2448 to 2914, the Space of 466 Years ; the first of whom was Cecrops an Egyptian, who founded it, and the laft Codrus ; after whom the Athenians abolish'd the Kingly

Power, declar'd Jupiter their only King, and inPerpetual stituted the (2.) Perpetual Archontes; the first of Archontes. whom was Medon, and the last Alcmeon. There

were 13, and they govern’d about 316 Years : They instituted the Olympiads, and built the

Temple of Jupiter Olympius, one of the Wonders Decennial of the World. (3.) The Decennial Archontes, Arcbontes. who ruled only 10 Years each. Of these there

were 7; the first was Creon or Charops, and the

last Eryxias : This Government continued 70 Annual Years. (4.) Annual Archontes, who were chosen Archontes.

yearly; and this State lasted about 761 Years. The State of

SICYONE underwent two States of GovernSicyone ; ment. (1.) Monarchical, founded about A. M. Monarchical,

1900 by Ægialeus the first King ; after him succeded 25 others, the last of which was Zeuzippe.

This State endured about 900 Years. (2.) $6Sacerdotal, or cerdotal, or that by the Priests of Apollo ; the first Hierarchica!. of whom was Archelaus, and the last Charidemes.

This Government lasted about 40 Years; afterwards it continued a Free State for 33 Years,

when 'twas seized by the Kings of Mycene. The fixfold

CORINTH underwent six States: (1.) Tha State of of the Sisiphides, 7 Kings; the first of which was Corinth.

Sisiphus, about A. M. 2593, and the last HianThe ifiphides. tidas: These ruled 269 Years. (2.) The HeraThe Heraclides. clides, 4 Kings; the first was Aletes, and the last

Primius : They govern’d 134 Years. (3.) The TheBacchides. Bacchides, 8 Kings; the first of whom was Baltris,

and the last Automene : This State continued 177 The Prytanes. Years. (4.) The Prytanes ; these were annual

Magijlrates, who ruled about 121 Years, when they fell under the Dominion of the Tyrants

Sipelus

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