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Tho' learn’d, well-bred; and tho' well-bred,

[sincere ; Modestly bold, and humanly severe ? Who to a Friend his Faults can freely show, And gladly praise the Merit of a Foe; Bleft with a Taste exact yet unconfin'd, A Knowledge both of Books and human Kind; Gen'rous Converse; a Soul exempt from Pride ; And Love to Praise, with Reason on his Side?

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297

or the

Of GEOGRAPHY;

DESCRIPTION of the GLOBE of LAND and WATER.

and may

EOGRAPHY is a Description Geography de-
of the Surface of the Earth, or fined.
terraqueous Globe, and all its Parts;

be divided into two great
Parts, viz. (1.) Geography pro- Its Division

perly so call’d, as it denotes bare- into Geography ly a Description of the Land, or terrestrial Part properly To of the Surface of the Globe. (2.) Hydrography, Hydrography

. which contains a Description of the Waters, or aqueous Part of the Earth's Surface.

Proper or special Geography is again divided Proper or spec into (1.) Chorography, which is a Description of cial Geograpíry particular Countries, as Great-Britain, France, Chorography &c. (2.) Topography, which is a Description of and Topograparticular Places. Geography may again be di- plas. vided into (1.) The Physical Part, which treats of the Nature and Qualilies of the several Parts of the Earth and its Appennages ; as the Figure, Magnitude, &c. of the Earth itself; of Mountains, Seas, Rivers, &c. of Beasts, Birds, and Fijbes, &c. (2.) The civil or political Part, which treats of Cities, Towns, Societies, Laws, Language, Learning and Customs, of the several Peoples and Nations of the Earth.

The Principles on which the Science of Geo- The Principies grapb; depends, are of three forts, viz. (1.) Pro- of Geographs.

positions

the Earth.

positions of Geometry, Arithmetic and Trigonometry. (2.) Astronomical Precepts and Theorems. (3.) Experience ; for the greatest Part of Geography is the Result of the Observations and Experience of those who have traveld and describ'd

the several Countries. Of the general SINCE the Globe or Body of Earth on which Affections of

we live, is the inmediate Subject of this curious and most useful Science, I shall first consider the more general and absolute Affeitions thereof, and then those which are more particular. Of the first Kind are (1.) The Figure or Form. (2.) The Magnitude or Dimensions thereof. (3.) The Motion of the Earth. (4.) The Situation thereof in respect of the other Parts of the Universe. (5.) The constituent Parts or Substance of the

Earth. Of all which in their Order. of the Figure As to the Figure of the Earth, the Antients of the Earth. had different and very odd and absurd Opinions The odd Notions of the

of it. Some thought it was plain ; others, that Antients about it was concave ; and again fome, that it was

quadrangular ; and others, that it was oblong, or in Form of a Parallelogram. Crates resembled it to a Semicircle ; Hipparchus to a round Table ; Posidonius to the Form of a Sling ; Leucippus to the Form of a Drum ; and others form’d other vulgar and rude Conceptions, and made wretched and senseless Comparisons concerning it ; all

which were in Time confuted, as the World Tie true Fi grew wiser. When and where Mathematical

Knowledge came to be understood, Philosopby Earth is Foundness or (which without it is generally the most aukward Sphericity. Nonsense) foon convinc'd Men that the Figure

of the Earth was that of a round Ball or Globe ; and this Opinion was sufficiently establish'd and even demonstrated by inany of the Antients, as Pythagoras, Aristotle, Archimedes and others; and indeed common Experience and Knowledge

it.

sure of the

of

of Travellers, Navigators, and Astronomers does so invincibly atteft the Truth of ibe Roundness of the Earth by many infallible Observations and Arguments, that it can never more be doubted or rather that of. But tho' the Earth, as to the general Idea, of a prolate be of a Round or Spherical Form, yet the modern Sphere,,or

Spheroid. or Newtonian Philosophy (which refines on all others) hath really demonstrated that it is not exactly round, but spheroidical, or that of an oblate Sphere or Spheroid : And that the Diameter of the Equator, or from East to Weft, is greater than that of the Poles, or from North to South, by about 34 Miles, the Proportion to each other being as 692 to 689.

The Magnitude of the Earth is easily attain- of the Magniable many ways, as I have shew'd in my Young tude of the

Earth. Trigonometer's Guide. For since it is known to be round, and that one Degree of a Great Circle thereof contains 69 and a half of our Statute Miles, 'tis evident the Circumference of the Farth will be 25020 Miles, and therefore the Diameter or Thickness of the Earth is 7964 Miles ; the Surface will contain 1992 50205 Square Miles, and the folid Content of the Earth will be 264466789170 Cubic Miles.

The Motion of the Earth about the Sun hath of the Motion been long asserted by the Learned, and denied by of the Earth the Ignorant and the Enthusiast, who never fail to about the Sun. oppugn what they don't understand. In the dark Ages of Antiquity Pythagoras was the first who discern'd and maintain'd it; which was again loft, with all other valuable Learning, for many Ages, till retriev'd by Copernicus, Galileo, &c. and is now demonstrated beyond all Exception to equal Judges of the Matter. For fince it is sufficiently proved, That the Squares of the Periodical Times are proportional to the Cubes of the Diftances from the Centers of the Orbits, about

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