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a young Lion; or Equivocal, when the Effect Equivocal. is of a different Nature, as when a Man writes a Book. Again, Causes are Solitary, as when a Solitary. Pestilence destroys a City; or Social, as when Social. an Army of Officers and Soldiers conquer it. An emanative Cause is when the Effect Aows Emanative. without any Action to produce it, as Heat or Light from Fire. An efficient Cause is that from Eficient. whose proper Action the Effect directly results ; as when a Man bends a Bow, or the Bow gives Alight to the Arrow, or the Arrow strikes the Mark. An instrumental Cause respects the Means, Instrumental. as the Knife in making a Pen. Necessary Causes Necessary. are such as ever act from a Necessity of the Nature of Things ; thus intercepted Light must produce Shadow or Darkness ; Fire mult necesarily burn, &c. A contingent Cause is that which ca- Contingent. sually acts, as a Tile falling on a Man's Head. A Cause is accidental when undesigned, as the Accidental. Breaking a Window by throwing a Stone at a Bird. A material Cause is the Substance, as a Material Gold or Brass Ring. A formal Cause is the Formal. Form, as the Roundness and circular Space of a Ring: Besides these there are a great Number of other Kinds and Divisions of Causes, of too little Moment to be here insisted on.

That is said to be Natural which is made of Natural. or done according to, or results immediately from the settled Laws, and establish'd Order and Course of Nature, which God first founded in the general Disposition of the Universe, and the Constitution of Things. Thus the Gravitation of Bodies, the Vegetation of Plants, the Pulsation of Arteries, the Generation of Animals, &c. are said to be natural Things. That Moral. is said to be Moral, which proceeds from or pertains to Manners, Conduct, and Government of reasonable and intelligent Bcings, endow'd

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with Freedom of Will, and under Obligations to particular Actions of Duty. Thus Law, Virtue,

Vice, Sin, Pardons, Rewards, Penalties, &c. are Artificial of a moral Nature. That is Artificial which re

sults from the Art, Skill, or Contrivance of Men ; as, Arms, Statues, Pictures, Houses, Books,

&c. Of Perma- Permanency is that State of Beirig, wherein the nency. Existence is constant, uninterrupted, and without

Change ; as the Position of the Sun and Stars in the Firmament, the Colour of the Sky, the Body of the Atmosphere, the Rocks and Mountains of the Earth, &c. which are said to be permanent Things ; tro' strictly speaking, there can be no absolute, but only comparative Perina

nency in any corruptible Beings. Of Succafion. Succession is that State of Being, which respects

the Parts of Time, in which Things of a cognate Nature, or of the same Kird, Order, or Line, have their Existence, with regard to each

other, so as they may be said to be before or Immediate or after one another. This is either immediate or Remote.

without Intervention of any other ; 25 King George II. is the immediate Successor of King George I. Or it is remote, as the present King

is a remote Succeffor to William the Conqueror. Direct, Alter- Again, with respect to the Manner of Succeljicn nate, er Inter- it is either direct, as of Persons in a Stock or changeable.

Family; or alternate, as of Day and Night ; or

interchangeable, as of the Strokes in the Changes Constant and on Bells. Also it is said to be constant, when Interrupted. there is no Vacancy of Subječts in any Part of

the Line; and when there is, the Succeffion is

said to be broken or interrupted. OP Abluste Absolute and Relative Affections of Being are and Riiative. thus distinguish'd: A Thing is said to be abjolute

when it is consider'd as subsisting by itself, exclusive of all other Ideas of Existence whatsoever, or so as if no other Being was any more concern'd in the Speculation thereof, than if it did not really exist. But relative Affection, or Relation of Being, is the Respect or Habi- Relation. tude, which two or more Things have to one another, in regard of some common Property or Affinity of their Natures. Thus Paternity and Sonship, Greatness and Smallness are relative Ideas ; fo Father and Son, a Part and a Whole, the Beginning, Middle, and End, are relative Terms. In Relations, the Subject thereof, or Thing spoken of, is call’d the Relate ; and the Relate and other Term, to which the Subject relates, is call'd the correlate. Thus if we speak of a Correlate. Faiber, he is the Subject or Relate, and the Son is the Correlate ; but if we speak of a Son; the Son is the Relate or Subject, and the Father is the Term or Correlate. Relations are (1.) Natu- Relations. ral; as Root and Branch, Father and Children, Natural. &c. (2.) Moral ; which respects a Law, or Moral. Rule of Action, as Good and Evil, Rewards and Penalties, &c. (3.) Reciprocal, or Synonymous; Reciprocal. as Cousins, Neighbours, Partners, Ballances, &c. (4.) Non-reciprocal; as Cause and Effect, King Non-reciprocal and Subječts, &c. (5.) Real; in Things which Real. do really exist, as Master and Scholar. (6.) Men- Mental. tal; which are made only by the Mind ; as Genus and Species, the abstra£t Ideas, and mental Signatures, of Things, as Words, Terms of Art, &c.

foever,

Subject and Adjunkt are next to be consider'd ; Of Subjea the Subje£t is the Substance of any Existence with and Adjunct. all the Effentials thereof; the Adjuncts are some accidental Modes, not necessary to the Existence of the Subject ; but are only certain Appendices or Circumstances thereof; as Time, Place, Light, Cloathing, Situation of other Things or Perlons, and the Concomitant, Antecedent, or Consequent

Events.

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Events. When we consider Things as the SubOf Objects. jects of Occupation, Operation, Science, Thought,

Sense, &c. they are then call'd Obječts ; and are Immediate. of several Sorts, viz. (1.) Immediate; as the

Words and Pages of a Book are of a Student's Mediate. Occupation. (2.) Mediate ; as his Library of Remote. Books. (3.) Remote ; as Notions, Arts and Sci

ences, which are taught by those Books. Again, Common. they are (4.) Coinmon ; as the Size, Figure and

Motion of Bodies are common to the two different Proper.

Sensos of Sight and Feeling : Or (5.) Proper ;

as Colours are to the Sight only. Lastly, ObMaterial. jects are (6.) Material ; as the Body of a Man Formal. is of Anatomy, Physic and Surgery ; or (7.) For.

mal ; as Dillecting, Curing or Healing of the Body, conflitute the formal Objects of those three

Arts. Of Number. Number is that Affection of Being, wherein

many singie, distinct, and separate Subitances are considered as existing together, and making one Idea in the Mind ; as such and such a Quotient of Men, Trees, Houles, &c. When several Numbers are added, multiplied, or divided, the

Result is callid the Sum, Product, and Quotient, Quantity dif. respectively. Number is faid to be discrete

Quantity; as Magnitude is call’d continued Quantity. Number is finite, indefinite, or infinite, as

well as Magnitude. See Unity, &c. Order, what. Order is that Affection of Being, wherein

one Thing is consider'd as existing before, together with, or after another Thing, and therefore may be said to be prior, simultaneous, or posterior to it.

Order is fix-feld, viz. (1.) Of Of Mature. Nature ; thus the Father is before the Son. (2.) Time. Of Time ; thus Spring is before the Summer, and Place.

Autumn after it. (3.) Of Place; as the Horse Dinity.

is before the Cart. (4.) Of Dignity; as the King is before a Duke. (5.) Of Science ; thus

crite.

Science.

a Line must be known before an Angle. (6.)
Of Number; as the Fourth is next in Order be- Number.
fore the Fifth, and after the Third.

Time, as consider'd by Ontologists, is that Part Of Time.
of Duration, which terminates the Interval of
the Existence of Things; or if consider'd phy-
fically, is what we call successive Duration ; and
is divided into the Past, the Present, and the Fu-
ture, as is well known. See more of this under
Philosophy; and concerning the Measures, and
Civil Divisions of it, under the Title of Chro-
nology.

Ubiety is a Term used with respect to spiritual Of Ubiety and Beings, as Locality is with regard to corporeal Locality. ones, and is the very fame Thing, viz. that Part of Space which circumscribes the Existence of Things at any given Moment of Time, and is commonly call’d their Place. See Space far- Place, what. ther explain'd under Philosophy. Place is the Situation of Bodies ; and is two-fold, viz. (1.) Is two-fold, Absolute, which is that Part of Space any Being Relative. fills up or possesses, consider'd simply in itfelf. (2.) Relative, which is that Situation any Being has with respect to other quiescent Bodies around it.

Unity is that Affection whereby any Thing Of Unity, and subsists singly and alone in our Minds, from all Union. others of a like Kind; and it is either simple or compound as to the Substance existing, as one Flower, or one Nosegay. Union is that whereby two or more Things become one, or are so consider'd; as Metals, in Fusion, run together, and make one Substance; thus States unite under one Government. Unity and Multiplicity, Singularity and Plurality, are Opposites, and nearly of the same Signification in the like Terms of each.

Verity or Truth is divided by Ontologists into, Of Verity or (1.) Metaphysical Truth, which consists in a per

Truth. feet

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