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know the internal Motions of the Mind, and he only is able to punish the sinning Conscience.
An Human Law is that of Man, who receives An Human the Power of giving Laws from God: This Law, what. Law is mutable and prudential, and therefore subject to Repeal and Amendment. An Human Law only binds the Conscience in a mediate Manner, and in Subservience to the Divine Law. The Body only is the proper Subject of Human Law, as the Conscience is of the Divine Law.
A Divine Law is either Positive or Natural. The Divine The Positive Law is so called, because its Obli- Law twofold, gation ariseth only from the Will or Precept of viz, Positive, ,
. the Commander. And that is said to be a Natural Law, whose Obligation ariseth from the Nature of the Thing enjoin'd. Therefore, Things of the Natural Law are prohibited, because they are evil; but those of the Positive Law are evil only because probibited. The Natural Law is what of late is generally calls the Moral Fitness of Things.
VIRTUE is an Habit of Mind, elective and Virtue definid. acquird, by which we are render'd apt, and conftantly inclin’d to prosecute or avoid, to act or not to azt, as Reason and Prudence direct or require.
VICE is an Habit of Mind, acquir’d, and by Vice defin'd. which we are render'd negligent of the Distates of right Reason and Prudence in the Course of our Actions. Vice differs from Sin in this, that the How differs former is an evil Habit, the latter an evil Axt. from Sin. Sin, or moral Evil, is of a negative Nature, be- Sin, or Moral ing the Want or Privation of that Rectitude E-vil defin'd. which ought to be in every rational Creature, which renders him conformable to the Rule or Law of Action. VIRTUE, by fome, is said to consist of the Virtue resolu'd
into its great fix following great Parts, viz. Prudence, Sincerity, Parts ; a kich
Forti- are fix.
Fortitude, Temperance, Justice, and Charity. And under these general Heads, which are call'd Cardinal Virtues, (as the great Hinges on which all Morality turns) are contain'd all the leffer Branches and Subdivisions of Moral Duties or
Virtues. I. Prudence, I. PRUDENCE is an Habit, by which a wherein it Person rightly judgeth, both for himself and confifts.
others, concerning those Things which are the Subjects of Action, in regard both of temporal and eternal Welfare ; and so orders and governs the Actions of Life, that discerning the Good from the Evil, and the Useful from the Hurtful, he can direct Persons what to follow, and what to fly, and instruct them how to live well and happily. Or, more briefly, it is the Knowledge
of those Things which are proper to be desired The Offices of or avoided. The Offices then of Prudence are, Prudince. (1.) To judge and discern between Things fit
and not fit to be done on all Occasions. (2.) To counsel and advise others who stand in need thereof. (3.) To prescribe the Means for a safe and
happy Conduct of Life. 11. Sincerity II. SINCERITY is that Virtue of the Mind, defin'd.
by which the Will is simply and wholly determind to that which the Mind judgeth to be absolutely best, and merely and alone for that Reason, viz. because it is beft. It determines the Will simply, without Ilypocrisy, or Mixture of external Regards ; as, to. Gain, Fame, &c. And wholly, inasinuch as it prosecutes, without Exception, all Things which by the Mind are adjudg'd best and most fitting. Since then it is in itself a Thing really and simply the best, that we follow and obey God in all Things, 'tis necessary that this Virtue of Sincerity should move and excite us thereto; and that merely because he is a proper Objed, and it is our reasonable and most advantageous Duty fo to do. Hypocrisy is the Vue opposite to this Virtue.
III. FORTITUDE is a firm and steady III. Fortitude Purpose and Resolution of Mind, to undertake defin’d. good and necessary Works and Actions, and a conftant Perseverance in prosecuting the fame, maugre all the Dangers and Difficulties that may arife and attend it. Fortitude therefore consists in these two principal Acts, viz. to undertake, and to fustain. The first is Resolution, the second Resolution. Contancy and Patience. The first proceeds from Conftancy. a natural Magnanimity, or Greatness of Mind ; Patience, the latter from a noble Bravery, Courage, and
Magnanimity. Strength of the Mind, rather than of the Body. Magnanimity, Equanimity, and Patience, are al- Equanimity. ways the inseparable Concomitants of true Fortitude. The first secures us against the Loss of Honour; the second, against adverse Fortune ; the laft enables us to bear the Pains of the Body, and Indispositions of Mind.
IV. TEMPERANCE is that Virtue which IV. Tempefets proper Bounds and Limits to our natural Ap- rance defin’d. petites and Desires, in Things which respect the prefent Life. The Virtue of Temperance is very extenfive, and comprehends the following, viz.
Honour, which is an Acknowledgment and Honour. proper Teftification of that Dignity, Worth, and Excellency we observe or understand to be in another. Temperance 'here forbids Flattery, which is the Flattery. giving a greater Measure of Honour and Merit than is due to a Person.
Modesty is that noble Virtue which temperates Modesty. our Desire of Honour ; and though it produces in us a moderate Conception of our own Merits and Worth, yet it generously permits to receive and acknowledge so much Honour and Efteem
as we reasonably deserve. The same holds good with respect to the natural Concupiscence of the Body. The opposite Vices hereto are Pride and
SOBRIETY is that excellent Virtue which temperates and restrains our natural Appetites, chiefly of Meat and Drink, to what is sufficient
and necessary; and thereby prevents in us those Gluttony and two vicious and dishonourable Excesses, Gluttony Drunkenness. and Drunkenness, too well known to need de
fining Chastity de
Chastity is that most amiable and engaging find. Virtue, which instructs and disposes the Mind
to a pure Life, undefiled, and free from all impure Affections, in Word, Gesture, or Action. But in common, Chastity is taken in a more restrain’d Sense, and signifies that Virtue, whereby we abstain from all lustful Impurities of that kind we call Venereal; and avoid all the Mo
tives thereto, in Thought and Deed. To this Opposite Vices. Virtue are opposed the following Vices, viz. Adultery. (1.) Adultery, the unlawful Coveting or CohaFornication. biting with another Man's Wife. (2.) Fornica
tion, the illegal and carnal Cohabiting of a Man Concubinage. and Woman, both unmarried. (3.) Concubinage,
which is a Man's keeping an unmarried Woman
at his House, and cohabiting with her constantly Polygamy. as a Wife. (4.) Polygamy, or Plurality of Wives
or Husbands, with one Man or Woman at one Ince! time. (5.) Incest, which is either Adultery, For
nication, or Marriage, within the probibited DeRate. grees of Kindred. (6.) Rape, or Ravishment.
All which are heinous and abominable Crimes in
the Sight of God. V. oise. V. JUSTICE is that moral Virtue whereby dcfr . 2. we are inclin’d to perform every Thing that is due to our Neighbour, so far as Right and Equity
require. Justice is concern'd to preserve the In-
1. CommutaEquality of the Thing receivd and return'd; and
tive, what, is the Virtue which renders to every one his own, in external Goods; and is principally occupied in Buying and Selling, which is a Commutation of Things of equal Value; and the common and standard Measure of such kind of Commerce between Men, is what we call Money.
Money, what. The Vice opposite to this we call Injustice ; Injustice, what which consistech in baving more or less in the Permutation of Goods, than the aforesaid Equality requires.
Distributive Justice is that which consists in 2. Distribu-
VERACITY is that Virtue whereby we are Veracity de-