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Ideas clear (1.) A clear and distinet Idea is that which reand diftinet, presents the Object to the Mind in a free and sepaconfused.
rate View, with full Evidence and Strength, plainly distinguishing it from every other Object. An obscure and confused Idea represents the Object faintly, imperfečtly, and confounded or mingled with others. Thus the Sky and the Sea exhibit clear and diffinĉt Ideas near at hand; but
obscure and confused in a hazy Day near the 10Vulgar and
rizon. (2.) Vulgar Ideas are of the most comlearned ideas. mon and sensible Appearances contain'd in the
Objects; as of the splendid Colours and Form of the Rain-bow : But learned Ideas represent the more intimate Nature, Properties, Causes, and Effects of Things ; as a Philosopher's Idea of the various Reflections and Refractions of Sun-Beams
in Drops of falling Rain, and the Genesis of the Perfect and
Rain-bow from thence. (3.) Perfest or Adequate adequate Ideas represent their archetypical Obječts, compleatIdeas, and the
ly and perfektly, or fully and entire ; as those of a Square or Triangle; all the Parts whereof are evident. But Imperfeet or Inadequate Ideas represent their Objects partially, incompleatly, and not entire. As that of a Cube, when you see only the square Side thereof; or that of a Figure of
a thousand Sides and Angles; the Powers of the True and false Magnet, &c. (4.) Ideas are true, when they Ideas.
are conformable to the Objects, and represent them just and simply such as they really are ; otherwise they are fa!fe Ideas. As when a Man in the Jaundice sees all Things yellow ; or the crooked Appearance of a strait Stick in the Water; or the Sun or Muon rising bigger than in the Me
ridian. A Tranhition Thus we have taken a succinct View of Subto Languages, fiances and Modes, as they exist without us, and or Words and Terms.
form the various material and mouified World ; and also of the Ideas which they excite within
us, and which constitute that noble Variety and Treasure of Knowledge and Science in the Mind : 'Tis now in Order requisite that we take notice of the Ways and Means, whereby we are able to express these Ideas and Sentiments of the Mind, and to communicate them to others : And this is by the Use of Speech and Language.
Language has been already treated of so far Of Language as it has a Grammatical and Rhetorical Regard ; consider'd with it remains now to be consider'd with respect to rigard to its
Use in . its Use in Lagic or the Art of Reasoning. And thus we must consider Words and Terms, as Marks, Chara£ters, or Symbols of Ideas, either Vocal or Written, and which are aptly expressive of their different Natures and Properties, and render them intelligible to others.
And as Words are the Medium of Knowledge Words the and Truth, so it often happens they are Sources Means not only of Miftake and Error; and that (1.) Because of Knowledge,
but of Error there is no necessary Connexion or Relation be- sometimes. tween our Ideas and Words, but Words are arbi- The principal trarily imposed by different People ; and who Sources thereof. therefore in different Sounds express the same Tbing ; as Albus in Latin, Blanc in French, Leucos in Greek, and White in English. (2.) Because different simple Ideas are not always express’d by appropriate single Words, but oftentimes many by the same Word. As the Words sweet and foarp are both applied to the Objects of different Senses, viz. of Hearing and Tasting. (3.) Because we cannot always express the simple Ideas in complex ones, by peculiar and appropriated Words; as we do in the Apple Bitter-sweet. (4.) Because many Words are used in their original Sense, and yet their Etymology is different, obfcure or uncertain. (5.) Because many Words are used in a Sense entirely different from that in the original Language. Thus the Word Spirit
with us is from Spiritus, Breath or Air, from Spiro, to breathe, in Latin ; the same also is in the Greek and Hebrew for the same Word. (6.) The last great Cause of Error I shall mention, is the signifying many Ideas, of different Natures, by one and the same Word: As the Word Gate
signifies a great Door, the Mien in walking, &c. Of the various FROM whence 'tis evident, if we would avoid Kinds of Words Mistake and Error in our Pursuit after Truth, we and Terms.
must take good heed to the Use and Meaning of Words and Terms, and be acquainted with their various Kinds. The Kinds of Words are those which follow : (1.) Positive and Negative. (2.) Simple and Complex. (3.) Common and Proper. (4.) Univocal and Equivocal. (5.) Concrete and
Abstract Terms. Of all which in their Order. Of Positive Terms are either Positive or Negative. Positive and Negative Words have an affirmative Sense, and signify some Terms.
Positive Idea ; as Art, Life, Sense, Motion, &c. But negative Terms exhibit negative Ideas, or have a negatory Sense express'd by some Particle or Preposition of Denying join’d to them ; as Artless, Lifeless, Senseless, Nonsense, &c. Thus the Positive Terms finite, moveable, regular, &c. are render'd Negative by the Particles In, Im, Ir ; as infinite, immoveable, irregular, &c. But in many Cases Positive Words have Negative Significations, and the contrary, which is a great Im
perfection and Unhappiness in Language. Of Simple and The second Division of Terms is into Simple Complex and Complex. A Simple Term is one Word; a Terms.
Complex Term is when more words are used to signify one Thing Thus, the second Emperor of Rome excites the Idea but of one Man, viz. Augustus. Of this sort are most Circumlocutions. Also many simple Words are complex in Sense; as those which contain complex, compound, and collective Ideas ; as Man, Milkridate, Army, &c, which all contain a Variety of Ideas; as are most of our Moral Words and Natural Ideas, Religion, Piety, Loyalty, Knavery, Theft, &c. Some Terms are Complex both in Words and Sense ; as, a fierce Dog, a pious Man ; which Expressions excite an Idea not only of the Creatures, but their peculiar Qualities also.
AGAIN, Words and Names are either Proper or Of proper and Common, which are also call’d Appellatives; for common Words both which see the Chapter of Grammar. Only here observe (1.) That Proper Names in some Sense may become Common. As Cæsar was the proper Name of Julius the first Roman Emperor, but became afterwards the common Name of all the following Emperors. (2.) A common Name is sometimes used as a proper one ; thus when we in Great-Britain say, the King, the Prince, we intend properly King George, and Frederic Prince of Wales. (3.) That any common Name is made proper, by the Addition of some Term of a particular and determinate Meaning ; as, the present Pope, the King of Great-Britain, the Roman Orator, this Book, that Knife, &c.
The fourth Division of Words and Terms is of Univocal into Univocal and Equivocal. Univocal Words are and Equivocal
Words. such as signify but one Idea, or at least but one fort of Thing; as Book, Bible, Fijh, House, Elephant. But Equivocal Words are such as signify two or more different Ideas, or different sorts of Objects; thus the word Head signifies the Head of a Nail or Pin, as well as of an Animal. So the Words Nail, Pot, Church, Grave, High, Sweet, Sharp, &c. are Equivocal, as signifying several different Things. And when Persons in Dispute use Equivocal Words with a Design to puzzle or deceive, it is callid Equivocation. Note, that as
wbat. these Equivocal Terms are callid Homonymous or Homonymous Ambiguous ; so Words which fignify the same and Synony
Thing mous Terms.
Thing are called Synonymous, as Faith, Belief,
or Aktion of the Mind. Of the several Since Equivocal Words are of the greatest ImKinds of Equi- portance to be well understood, and their various vocal Words Senses distinctly known in all polemical Affairs,
or Matters of Disputation ; I shall briefly here
enumerate the several kinds thereof. And (1.) Some in Sound. Some are Equivocal in Sound only ; as Rein, of
a Bridle ; Reign, of a King ; Rain, a Shower :
Might, Strength; Mite, a little Animal : So Others in
write, Wright, right, &c. (2.) Sone in Writing Writing
only; as to tear in Pieces is spellid and wrote the fame as a Tear ; and to lead the same as Lead, a Metal. Bowl a Ball, and Bowl a Veffel, are
wrote the same. (3.) Some are equivocal in reSome in Ex- spect of their Extent of Meaning, being sometent of Mean- tiines taken in a larger and more general, and ing
sometimes in a more particular and restrain’d Sense. Thus Sin and Virtue are sometimes used to signify particular Actions and Føculties ; and
sometimes the general Nature of all Good and Some by origi- Evil. (4.) Some are so in regard of their Orinal and custo- ginal and Modern or Customary Use. Thus Sjirit mary Use.
originally signified the Breath, Air or Wind; but it is likewise used to signify invisible Beings. Geography originally signifies a Description of the Earth only, but by Custom it generally includes that of both Earih and Sea ; the same
observ’d of Theology, Astronomy, Geometry, &c. Some by a (5.) Some by reason of a Literal and FiguraFigurative tive Sense. Thus, by a Metaphor, God is said to Sense.
repert, grieve, &c. By the Figure Epitrope,
Solomon says, Rejoice, O young Man, and let thine Some by a
Heart chear thee, &c. (6.) Some on account of a
common and scientific Meaning. Thus Pallion scientific
vulgarly signifies Anger or Wrath ; in Morality Meaning the Afections of the Mind, as Love, Joy, Fear,