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confift. Compound Substances are made up of Compound. two or more simple ones, and such are all that are perceptible by our Senses in the material World,

AGAIN; Substances are said to be (1.) Pure, Pure. when they consist of only one Sort of Substance; as a Guinea is pure Gold, if it has nothing but Gold and no Alloy of other Metal in it. (2.) Mix'd ; Mix'd. such as consist of two or more beterogeneous Substances. (3.) Animate are those which have Life Animate. and Sense, as Animals, Beasts, Fish, Men, &c. (4.) Inanimate ; those which have no Life or Inanimate. Sense, as Stones, Earth, Water, &c. (5.) Vege- Vegetable. table ; such as are possess'd with a Power of Growth, Increase, and Production, but without proper Life and Sense, as Plants, Herbs, and Trees. (6.) Rational ; such as are endow'd with Rational. the Faculty of Reason and Intelligence, as Angels and Men, and even Brutes too, in some Degree: All others are call's Irrational, or devoid of Reason.

Of Modes, which are also call'd the Qualities, Of Modes : Attributes, and Accidents of Being or Substance, Esential; as there are reckoned the following Kinds. (1.)

Difference and
Essential ; that which belongs to the very Essence
or Nature of the Substance or Subject in which
it is ; and this is either primary, as Roundness in
a Globe; or secondary, which is consequent upon
the other, as Volubility or Aptness to roll: The
first is call'd the Difference, the latter the Pro-
perty of the Body or Globe. (2.) Accidental; that Accidental;
which is not necessary to the Being of the Thing, properly calla
but may be wanting, and yet the Nature of the Accidents.
Subje£t remain the same ; as Smoothness or Rough-
ness, Largeness or Smallness, this or that Colour,
Motion or Rest, in a Globe or Bowl: These Modes
are properly call'd Accidents of Bodies.

Modes are farther divided into (3.) Absolute Abfolute.
Modes; an absolute Mode is that which belongs

Property.

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Ažtion.

to its Subject without respect to any other Being

whatsoever, as Size, Motion, &c. in a Globe. Relative. (4.) Relative Modes are deriv'd from Comparison

of one Being with others ; and these are the
Affections of the absolute Modes, as Greatness and
Smallness of size, and Swiftness and Slowness of
Motion ; which are only so in Respect or Compa-

rison of the Size or Motion of other Things. (5.) Intrinsic. Intrinsic Modes are such as are inherent in the

Subječt itself, as Roundness, Size, Motion, Rest, &c. Extrinsic. in a Globe. But (6.) Extrinsic Modes are such as

derive their Being from other Beings without the Subject, as Vicinity or Nearness, or Distance, Aisi

nity, or Relation, &c. (7.) Some reckon Action, Pasion.

and (8.) Passion, or suffering the Action, among

the Modes of Existence, as they doubtless are. Natural or

(9.) Natural or Physical Modes are such as are Physical. deriv'd from Nature, as the Shape and Senses of Supernatural. Animals. But (10.) Supernatural Modes are such

as result from something above the Power of NaModes of ture, as Inspiration, &c. (11.) There are not Modes. only Modes of Substances, but of Modes also

themselves: For when I say, A Man walks gracefully, 'tis plain Motion is his Mode at that Time; but Walking is a particular Mode or Manner of his Motion, and gracefully is still a farther Mode

of Walking Of the Five The Ancients, and from them the Schools of Predicables. some later Ages, have made a great Noise about

their Predicables, and Predicaments or Categories. By Predicables they mean such common Words or Qualities as might be predicated or asserted of divers Things or Subjects, as Animal may be pre

dicated of Man, Beast, Fowl, &c. Of these PreGenus. dicables they reckon'd five Kinds, viz. (1.) Genus Species.

or Kind. (2.) Species, Particulars of each Kind. Difference. (3.) Difference, or that Quality which makes one

Thing of a different Nature from another. (4.) Property.
Property, as before explained. (5.) Accident.

Accident. By Predicament they understood an orderly Se- of the ten ries of Words, which express'd simple Ideas or Predicaments. Things; of these Predicaments they number'd ten, viz. Substance, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Astion, What they be. Palion, Where, When, Situation and Cloathing. But this ten-fold Division of Things the Modern Reje&ted by the Logicians reject, as loose, injudicious, and even Moderns. ridiculous.

Having thus view'd Being or Substance Of Non-entity, both absolutely and variously modified, we shall or Not-being. just reflect on the Nature of Not-being or Nonentity. This is of a two-fold Consideration, as it is two-fold. may be in respect both of Mode and Substance. For (1.) There may be a Non-entity of Substance of Substances, (and consequently of the Modes) and this is call'd as Nibility or

Vacuum. pure Nibility, or meer Nothing; and this in a Pbysical Sense is call’d a Vacuum also. (2.) There may be a Non-entity of Modes only; and that Or of Modes either of such as naturally belong to the Subject ;

only. as of the Sight, Hearing, &c. in a blind and deaf Man, and this is call'd Privation : Or it is of Privation, Modes not essential to the Subject ; as Learning, Riches, &c. in a Mechanic, and this is call's Ne- Negation. gation. Now 'tis plain a great Number of our Notions will fall under the Class of Non-entities, as Sin, Darkness, &c. and some have cast hither all the Relative Modes, or Relations, and all others which they call meer Creatures of the Mind. But how justly, let better Judges determine.

Being, Not-being, and the Modes thereof be- of Ideas. ing considered, we are naturally led to a Contemplation of the Ideas of those Things in our Minds. And in doing this, we shall consider their various kinds according to (1.) their Original; (2.) their Nature ; (3.) their Objects; and (4.) their

O 3

Qualities.

Ideas.

Ideas,

Qualities. For this four-fold Division will easily

comprise them all. Ideas divided With respect to the Original of Ideas, they with respect will be (1.) Sensible or corporeal Ideas, as being deto their Ori- rived originally from Bodies by the Senses ; such ginal.

are all the Ideas of Colours, Sounds, Tasies, FiSensible or Corporeal gures, Shapes, Motions, and all we call sensible

Qualities. (2.) Mental or Intellectual Ideas; such Mental, or

as we gain by Reflection on the Astions of our Intelleétual

Minds, and observing all that passeth there. Such are the Ideas of Thought, Asent, Dissent, Judg

ing, Reason, Knowledge, Mind, Will, Love, Fear, Abstracted Hope, &c. (3.) Abstracted Ideas; these are acIdeas.

quired by that Faculty of the Mind, callid AbStraktion. Such are Cause, Effect, Likeness, Unlikeness, Subject, Obje£t, Identity, Contrariety, and Terms of Arts and Sciences. But these Abstracted Ideas are too much implied in the other two of Sensible and Intelleétual, to make a Distinction of

Originals. With refpetto

Ideas, with respect to their Natures, are Sim. their Nature

. ple and Complex, Compound and Collective Ideas. Simple Ideas. (1.) A Simple Idea is one uniform and indivisible

Idea, which the Mind cannot distinguish into two or more: As the Ideas of sweet, bitter, Cold,

Heat, white, red, hard, soft, Thorgbt, Will, Wish, Complex Ideas. &c. (2.) A Complex Idea is made by joining

two or more simple ones together ; as a Square, Triangle, Cube, Pen, a Table, Reading, Body, a Man, an Angel, a swift Horse, &c. and every

Thing that can be divided by the Mind into two Compound or more Ideas. (3.) A Compound Idea is such as

contains several dilinist and simple Ideas of a different Kind. Thus Man is a Compound of Body and Spirit; Mithridate is a Medicine compounded of many different Ingredients; Harmony of different Sounds united, &c. Which yet are look'd upon often as diline and single Beings. (4.) A

Collective

Ideas.

cial.

Collective Idea is when a Number of Ideas of the Collettive
Same Kind are united together, and consider'd in Ideas.
one View; as an Army of Men; a Flock of Sheep;
a Dictionary of Words; a Nosegay of Flowers ;
a Grove of Trees, &c.

Ideas according to their Objects may be divided Ideas divided into Particular and Universal

, Real or Imaginary. with respect (1.) Particular Ideas represent fingle Objects either jeets. in a vague and indeterminate manner, as fome Man, Particular one Time, some one City, any Horse, &c. these the Ideas. Schools call the Vague Individual Ideas : Or else in a determinate Manner ; as Cicero the Orator, Peter the Apostle, this Book, that River, the New-Forest, the City of London, &c. (2.) An Universal Universal Idea is that which represents a Common Ideas are GeNature, agreeing to several particular Things, as neral or Spea Man, a Horse, a Book. These are also diftinguished into General and Special; the General Ideas are of the Genus or primary common Kind, Genus, what. which includes other common Natures; as Animal is a Genus, because inclusive of all the common Natures of Animals. The Special Ideas are those Species, what. of the Species, which is a common Nature agreeing to several Individual Beings; thus Horse agrees to Trot, Dobbin, &c. Man to Peter, Paul, John, &c. City to London, Paris, &c. Whence 'tis easy to observe the same Idea may be fometimes à Genus, and at others a Species. (3.) Real Ideas. Real Ideas are of Objects which do really exist in Nature; but (4.) Imaginary Ideas are of those Imaginary things which do not exist in that particular Man- Ideas. ner as we conceive them in the Idea ; as a Castle in the Air, a Centaur, Chimera, Satyr, Sea of Fire, &c.

The last Division of Ideas is that with re- The Division {pect to their Qualities; wherein they are said to of Ideas with be clear and distinct; or obscure and confused ; vul- The

tbeir Qualizar or learned; perfect or imperfect ; true or false. ties.

(1.) A

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