網頁圖片
PDF
ePub 版

Of the low

the Eyes ; and the Art of the Orator should oblige us with the additional Pleasure of a Sight and Prospect of what Nature has only qualified us

to bear and understand. Of Style, and

Before we quit this Subject, it may not be its Kinds. amiss to say somewhat concerning Style, Cha

rafter, or Manner of Writing and Speaking. This is of three Kinds. (1.) The magnific and sublime. (2.) The mean and equable ; and ( 3.) The low and simple Style.

The loze or bumble Style is a Diction pure, Style. decent, and native, but not rude and uncouth; is

close, modest, gently flowing, elegant, and simple ; and though it rises not to Pomp and Ornament, yet it rejects the vulgar ways of Expression, and requires a comely Dress. Virgil's Bucolics may be studied for a Specimen of this Sort of

Style or Dillion. Of the mean The mean and equable Style rises fomewhat Style.

higher, and is more frequent in Tropes, but yet modest ones ; is pretty florid with Figures, pleafant in Episodes and Digressions ; flowing with Sentences, yet gently, like a River whose Waters glide murmuring over the Stones between its Banks, painted on either Side with Flowers, and variously shaded with Woods. For this read

Virgil's Georgics. Of the sublime The sublime and magnific Style admits of noStyle.

thing mean or low throughout the whole, no not so much as a single Sentence ; if any such Thing be observ'd, though all besides be faid ever so well, it will lose the Character of the Sublime. It confifts in a most exquisite Choice of Words, polite and elegant, bold and ponderous ; great Dignity of Tropes and Figures, which it useth with the utmoft Freedom, Splendid and noble, but not dazzling ; solemn Majesty of Sentences, abounding with grand and awful Ideas; and all 191

other

other magnificent Furniture of Periods, Numbers,
&c. This not only terrifies with Thunder, and
Aashes with Lightning, but strikes with Thunder-
bolts : Or like a mighty rapid Torrent, inlarg'd
with Winter Snows, or Mountain Streams, which
furiously bears down Bridges, Banks and Flood-
Gates, lays waste the Fields, overturns the Rocks,
and where it finds no way, will force one ;
so it bears away with itself the Hearer and Adver-
sary, and forces them to go wherever it pleases
to ravish them. This glorious Strain of Rbeto-
ric runs through the Æneid, which is perhaps the
noblest Instance of the Sublime that we can read.
If any thing common there occurs, it receives a
peculiar Turn, and is exalted by some Trope, or
beautified with a Figure. Thus instead of Wine, ,

Fire, Bread; Bacchus chears, Vefta warms, and
Ceres satiates Hunger.

Of

193

Of LOGIC, or the Art of

REASONING.

COGIC is the Art of just Reason- Logic

ing; or, it is the Skill of using defined.
rightly the Faculties of the Mind
to the Purposes of discovering
Truth or Error.

The Faculties or Powers of the Of the FaculMind, whose Operations are more immediately ties and open concerned in Logic, are four. (1.) Perception, Mind concernich Conception, or Apprehension, is that Act of the therein. Mind which perceives and contemplates the Species Porception. of external Objects offered to the Mind by the Senses, and whereby we become conscious of them. (2.) Judgment; this is that Operation of the Mind Judgment. whereby we compare two or more Ideas together, and from viewing them we discover, and accordingly afirm or deny fome Property of them ; as, Fire is bet; mere Matter cannot think, &c. (3.) Reasoning, Argumentation, or Ratiocination, Reasoning. is that Action of the Mind whereby we infer une Thing, or one Proposition, from two or more Propositions premised. Thus when I have judged that Man cannot be the Cause of himself originally, and yet he is the Effeit of some Cause, I mult necessarily infer and conclude, the Cause of Man's Exijtence is something external and different from bimself, which we call God. (4.) Disiosition ; Di.pofition. this is that Faculty of the Mind whereby it puts the Ideas or Conceptions in such an Order as is most fitting to give a clear View, and yield the

compliatet

compleatest Knowledge of them ; and for an Instance thereof, you may take this very Description of the four Operations of the Mind, and their Effects.

The Effect of this Operation is callid Method. Ideas, what.

The first of these Operations or Faculties of the Mind is conversant about Ideas. An Idea is the Image or Representation of Objects in the Mind: Thus the Notion or Form of a Horse, a Tree, a Man, &c. as it existeth in the Mind, is callid the

Idea of a Horse, a Tree, or a Man. All Idias ac

All Ideas become the Objects of the Mind, or quired by Sen- are there presented to the Judgment, either (1.) jation or Re- By the Perception of the Senses, by means of the flection.

Nerves, which we call Sensation : or (2.) By the

Meditation of the Mind, which we call Reflektion. Themes, cubat. The Objects of Perception, which are the

Archetypes of our Ideas, are callid Themes, whether they are Beings or Not-beings, or Entities or Non-entities ; for Non-existence may be proposed

to our Minds, as well as real Existence or Being. Of Being and

Being is that which is or doth really and actiNot-being ally exist, and therefore callid Existence; Not-be

ing is that which hath no Being or Existence in Nature, and is call'd Non-existence. Again ;

every Being is considered as subsisting either (1.) in Substance.

and by itself, and that is call'd a Substance ; or,

(2.) it subsists in and by another, and then 'tis Mode.

call'd a Mode or Manner of Being. Thus a Body, as my Pen is a Substance, and its Figure or Shape

the Mode. Of Substances,

OF Substances some are Simple, others Comand the vari- pound: Simple Substances are those which are ows Kinds :

perfectly homogeneous, or without any Mixture or Simple. Composition of different Natures in them : as (1.)

Spirits ; such we conceive GOD to be, and the
Angelic Species: or (2.) The Elements of Natural
Bodies, or those firji Principles, or simple Corpus-
cles of which all material Bodies do originally

confift.

« 上一頁繼續 »