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ral and Spe.
as he would. Without the Pathetic, even the justest Reasoning, tho' supported by found Learning, will appear a cold, lifeless, and unaffesling Harangue.
The Inartificial Arguments are not the Effect Of Inartificial of the Orator's Art, but he takes them from Argumenn. divers Topics elsewhere ; as from the Scriptures ; the Testimonies of antient and modern Authors; common and received Opinions, Proverbs, and Sentences; from Oaths, Writings, Laws, Contrails, Witnesses, Signs and Seals, and abundance of other Circumstances, all which an Orator ought to be well acquainted with.
The Topics of Artificial Arguments are either The Topics of General or Special : General Topics are the Store- Artificial Arhouses of Arguments, common to all kinds of saments, Gene: Subjects or Causes ; and are by the Learned cial. Volius determined to be two in Number, viz. (1.) Possible or Imposible ; for whether we design The General of to persuade or dissuade, to praise or dispraise, two Sorts ; accuse or defend, we must always prove the Facz Popible or Im
possible. or Subject has been, or is, Pcfible or Impossible to be. (2.) Great and Small is the other Title of Or Great and General Topics ; and to this all Comparisons re- small. late. As when we shew, this is more or less beneficial or pernicious, more useful or unuseful, more honourable or dishonourable, more just and equitable, or unjust and illegal, than that.
Special Topics are such Seats or Heads of Ar. Special Topics. guments as are proper to particular Subjeets and Causes; and for that Reason vary according to their Variety.
Of Causes or Subjelts of Oratory, there are of the three three Kinds. (1.) The Demonstrative ; (2.) The Kinds of SubDeliberative; and (3.) The Judicial. The De-jetts;
The Demonmonstrative Kind praises or dispraises; the Delia
firetire. berative persuades or dissuades, and the Judi-'The Deliberacial accuses or defends. And all a Man can speak tive.
or write must be recommended to the Hearer of The Purpose Reader in one of these three Ways. The Purand End of pose of the Demonstrative Kind, is Honour or đạc.
Shame; and its End, to render the Person, or Thing, lovely or detejłable. The Purpose of the Deliberative is Profit and Advantage, and the contrary; and its End, Hope or Fear. The Judicial Kind pursues Equity and Right; and hath
in View, Clemency or Severity. Orations of the Orations or Discourses of the Demonstrative Demonstra
Kind, or such as praise or difpraise, are of three tive Kind, tbreefold.
several Kinds; as (1.) Those which concern Perf0:15, real or imaginary: (2.) Those which are conversant about Fasts or Deeds; and (3.) Those
which relate to Things, Tale of Per- Oratorial Discourses concerning the Praise or fons. Dispraise of Persons, are spent chiefly on the The Subjects of foilowing Toţies ; viz. (1.) On considering and this kind of expatiating on some very remarkable and cisline Prcile or Dif praise.
z?!ishing Circumstances of the Person; as the Prodigies, Prophecies, Oracles, &c. (if any) which preceded his Birth : The notable Adjunets of his Birth, if any: His Native Country : His Stock or Lineage: His Sex: His Education, Learning, Studies, Counsels, and Exploits, and all other Circumstances attending every Stage of his Life : His Death, the Manner and Events thereof: The Funeral Sclemnities, &c. (2.) The next Topic of Discourse is the various Fortune of the Person, in respect of Riches, Poverty, Honours and Dignity: His Friends, Relatives, and Children. (3.) The Accidents of his Body; as Health, Strength, Robustness, Activity, Beauty, and Form. (4.) The Endowments and Qualities of his Mind; as Wit, Ingeny, Judgment, Docility, Memory, &c. (5.) His Manners and Habits, with regard to Virtue and Vice; where every Virtue conipicuous in his Life is taken notice of, and recommended ; and every Vicious Habit difprais'd and declaim'd. In all Declamations of this fort, Care should be taken, that we do not ascribe to the Perfon undue Praise ; nor such as is common to many, and not fingularly his own ; and lastly, that we dwell not too long on the Praises of light and trifing Things,
The second Sort of Declamations of the De- Thole which monftrative Kind, are those which relate to the relate to Praise of Facts and Deeds. The Topics whence Facts, and the Materials for amplifying and setting off this Topics peculiar Kind of Subject are deduced, are such as these ; (1.) That the Allion was bonourable and becoming the Person. (2.) That it was legal, and consentaneous to the Laws. (3.) That it was just and rigbteous with respect to God and Man. (4.) That it was glorious, and procur'd the Author Fame and Reputation. (5.). That it was useful in procuring some very considerable Good, or in averting some imminent and dangerous Evil. (6.) That it was an Enterprize of Difficulty, and attended with great Labour and Expence, and atcbiev'd in a fort Time. (7.) The Circumstances of the Person, and Manner of the Action; as that he did it either first, or alone, or with few, or principally; or at a most necessary Exigence of Time, Place, or Junɛture of Affairs; or often ; or that the Action has a Regard to the Honour and Benefit of the City and Country; or that tbereby new Honours, Dignity, Power, &c. first accrued to his Country. All which it behoves the Orator to examine and apply.
The third Subjekt of Praise are Things ; of Those which which we may reckon two Sorts. (1.) Places ; relate to as Regions or Countries, and Cities; concerning
Things, 26 which we observe their Origin, Antiquity, Extent, Situation, Fertility, Produce, the Inbabitants, the Founders of Cities, their Governors M 4
and Rulers, the Laws ; and every other thing
which may contribute any thing of National or Habits of the Civil Glory. (2.) The Habits of the Mind, the Mind.
Manners, and the various Acquisitions of Learning and Science, when in themselves and absolutely consider'd. These afford a copious Theme ; nothing being more obviously Praise-wortby chan Virtue and Learning ; and Vice and Ignorance claim the greatest Abhorrence among detestable
Things. Of the Delibe- The second Kind of Discourse or Subje&t of rative Kind of Oratory, is the Deliberative, or that which per. Causes, which suades or disuades. When the Orator enters on a persuade or Subje&t or Discourse of this kind, he must well difuade. consider every thing that may render the Subje£t
Matter eligible or odious to the Audience; and (crutinize every Topic from whence Motives, Reasons
and Arguments may be drawn to effect the The Subject
The Subje&t or Matter of these Deliberative Matter there
Orations, are all Things which happen, and are est, and its feveral Kinds. posited in our Power, whether of a private or pub
lic Capacity. Those Subjects which have regard to a public Capacity, are (1.) Funds, Revenues, and pecuniary Matters. (2.) Peace or War. (3.) Garrisons or Forces, which are the Defence of Countries. (4.) Trade and Commerce of all sorts. (5.) The Proposal of Laws to be establish'd or abrogated. Subjects of a private Concernment are whatever may be of Advantage or Detriment to
Particulars. The Topics of The Topics from which Motives, Reasons Arguments. and Arguments are to be drawn under this second
Great Part, are counted these Eight. (1.) The Honourable ; which it borrows from the foregoing Demonstrative Kind. (2.) The Profitable or Beneficial ; which is peculiar to this Kind. (3.) The Necesary; that it cannot be otherwise,
or without which we cannot be safe. (4.) The Delightful ; that it conduces to the Pleasure and Deleetation of the Body or Mind, or of both. (5.) The Possible ; that it may be easily done : This it cakes from the foregoing general Heads. (6.) The Rigbtful or Legal, which it borrows from the next judicial Kind. (7.) The Event ; the Advantage of which is argued by way of Dilemma ; let the Matter fall as it will, we ihall obtain the Benefit and Glory intended. (8.) Dialectical, or those borrow'd of its Sister-Science Logic ; when we reason from the Subječt itself; the Adjunts ; the Effeets; the antecedent, present, and subsequent Circumstances ; Comparison from the greater, the leffer, and its Contrary ; from Testimony; and above all otber Topics, most powerfully and efficaciously from Examples, when they are very apposite and congruous. But then Care should be taken, that they do not wholly engross the Oration.
The last Kind of Subject of the Oratorial Art of the Judiis the Judicial or Juridicial, whose Province it is
Subjects, to accuse or defendy and Heads or Topics of Argu- which accule ments or Proofs in this vary according to the Vari- or defend. ety of the State of the Cause which is the Subječt of our Accufation or Defence. There are four States. (1.) The Conječtural State, which en- The several quires wbetber the Fait or Case be so, or not.
States of the
Cause. (2.) The Definitive State, which enquireth of what Denomination the Matter is. (3.) The State of Quality, which examines the Nature of the Cause ; and (4.) The State of Quantity, which is concern'd about the Magnitude of the Crime or Fait. Every Speech or Oration of this juridicial Kind, has one or more of these four States.
The State of Conjecture has three Topics to con- The State of sult for Argument and Proof. (1.) The Will ;
Conjecture. which contains the impulsive Cause or Motives ; as the Passions and Affections, viz. Anger, Hatred,
cial Kind of