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of Number and Order ; as, once, twice, thrice ; then, thereafter, moreover, so forth, of new, finally, lastly, first, secondly, thirdly, &c. (4.) Adverbs of the Manner, Quality, &c. And these are either

Absolute ; as, simply, well, ill, bravely; truly, verily, certainly ; bappily, perhaps, no, not ; to wit, namely ; apart, together ; lo! behold! why? wbetber, &c. or Comparative, as more, exceedingly; less, bardly, well-nigh; so, alike, as ; other. wise, differently, &c.

CONJUNCTIONS are reckon'd the fixth of the fixth Part of Speecb. These are such Particles, or un- Part of Speech, variable Words, as serve to conjoin Words and call d ConjunSentences together, and thereby Mew their De- Kinds of them. pendence on one another. Of these there are the following Sorts. (1.) Copulatives ; as, and, with; neither, nor. (2.) Disjun&tives ; as either, or. (3.) Concessives ; as, though, although, albeit, yet. (4.) Adversatives ; as, but, yet, notwithstanding, nevertheless. (5.) Caufals; as, for, becouse, ibat. (6.) Illatives ; as, therefore, whereforl, seeing, since. (7.) Finals ; as, that, to that end. (8.) Conditionals; as, if, provided, if indeed. (9.) Exceptives ; as, unless, except. (10.) Diminutives ; as, at least, only. (11.) Expletives; as, now, truly, indeed, forsooth. (12.) Declaratives ; as, viz. to wit, namely, &c.

PREPOSITIONS are the seventh Part of Of the seventh Speech; and, as their Name implies, are set be- Part of Speech,

d Prepofifore Nouns Substantives to shew the Relation between them, and also the Manner, Order, Cause, Time, Place and other Circumstances of Nouns and Verbs ; as, in, to, through, by, before, bebind, after, from, at, against, about, among, for, with, beyond, &c. And besides this separate Ufe of Prepositions, they have another, which is to be joined in Composition with a vaft Number of Nouns and Verbs ; and by this means they create

call

a great

tions.

a great Variety, and give a peculiar Beauty, Fluency, and Elegance to the Language ; as hath

been before intimated. of the eighth INTERJECTIONS make the Eighth and Part of speech, last Part of Language ; these are small indeclincall d Interjections, and

able Words or Particles, which denote the Affetheir several Etions and Passions of the Mind, independently of Kinds. any other Word in the Sentence ; as in Calling,

Ho, Sobo! in Rejoycing, as O brave! Some express Grief ; as, ah! alas! wo is me! some Wonder; as, O strange! indeed! fome Praise ; as, well done! some Averfion; as, away! phy! tush! foine Surprize ; as, Good God! Wbat ! some Fear; as, ha! aha! fome Silence ; as, hark! hush! It! some Derision ; as, avant ! away with! some Imprecation ; as, wo! pox on’ı! fome Wishing ; as, God grant ! would to God!

some Deprecation ; as, God forbid ! A general Ob- CONCERNING all those Particles, which make fervation. the four last Parts of Speech, this in general may

be observ'd, that they are very often used interchangeably the one for the other, according to the Tenor and Exigency of the Sentence or Expression; the same Word being now an Adverb, then a Conjunttion, sometimes a Preposition, at others an Interjection ; as is obvious to the Eye of every observant Reader, I shall now proceed to the

last Part of Grammar, viz. of the fourth The SYNTAXIS or due Construction of Words Part of Gram- in Sentences. A Sentence is an Expression which Syntaxis.

consisteth at least of two Words, as God is, John A Senterice, whar.

readeth; but oftentimes it hath three or more, as, God hateth Liars, but His Countenance doth always behold the Upright. In every Sentence there must be found a Noun and a Verb, the first the Subject of which the latter doth affirm fome, thing, as, a Lie is abominable,

THE

mar,

THE Syntaxis, in those Tongues which vary The two Parts the Terminations of the Nouns and Verbs, is di- of Syntaxis, vided into two Parts, viz. Concord and Govern- Concord and

Government. meat. Concord is the Agreement of Words in Number, Perfon, Gender, Cafe, &c. Government is when one Word so governs another, that it causes it to be put into some special Case; and therefore, since all Cafes of English Nouns are made by invariable Particles, or little Words, as before hath been taught, it plainly appears that little Syntactical Government is to be expected in our Tongue, and that 'tis much better taught by the Genius thereof, than by the Rules of Art.

But with regard to Concord, somewhat is some Rules for necessary to be said ; since, tho' in itself so easy, English Conit is so little understood or attended to, in either cord. Speaking or Writing, amongst common People. Its Rules are few and plain, and are as follow. (1.) The Particles a and an must never be set before Nouns of the Plural Number; but the before Singular and Plural; as a Man, an House, the Man, the House. (2.) A Verb must agree with its Noun in Number and Person, as Thou readest, He beareth, We read. (3.) Two Nouns singular, having a Conjunction Copulative between them, requirea Plural Verb; as, The King and Queen reign, not regns: His Justice and Goodness were (not was) great. (4.) Nouns of Number, or Collectives, may have a Singular or Plural Verb, tho' themfelves be Singular ; as, The Mob is, or are, unruly; the Parliament is, or are, fitting ; part of the Nation was, or were, Nain. (5.) Any Sentence, or Matter, being the Subject of the Verb, requires the Verb to be put in the Singular Number; as, Early rising is heathful; to be learned is very honourable. (6.) When two Nouns of different Numbers are connected in a Sentence by a Verb, the Verb generally agreeth in Nam

ber

tion.

ber with the nearest ; as, Nothing is here wanting
but Charms: Riches are too often a Snare to
Men. The Rules of Concord between the Sub.
ftantive and Adjective, the Relative and Antece-

dent, have in our Tongue no place.
Solecism, And when these or any other Rules of Gram-
what.

mar are transgressed in Speaking or Writing, such
a Default is callid a Solecism, or an Impropriety

of Speech, wherein the Expression is rude, uncouth, Whence deri- and barbarous. It is said to be derived from the ved. Soli, a People of Attica in Greece, who being

transplanted to Cilicia in Lesser Asia, quite lost
the Purity of their Mother Tongue, and became
remarkable and even a By-laying for their bar-

barous Pronunciation. Of Periods,

As Syllables are composed of Letters, Words
their Nature
and Compofi-

of Syllables, and Sentences of Words; so Periods
are composed of Sentences, and a Discourse of
Periods. Every Period ought to have two com-
pleat Sentences, and not to exceed four. And
that the Period may be just and agreeable, the
Expressions or particular Sentences should not be
too long, but such as may render the whole Pe-
riod proportional to the Breath of the Spenker,
and the Voice capable of reposing at convenient

Intervals.
A Period of A Period therefore cannot consist of less than
two Sentences.

two Sentences or Members; for instance, (1.) As
the Body without the Spirit is dead, (2.) fo Faitb

without Works is dead also.
A Period of A Period of three Members may be such as
three Senten- this ; (1.) Seeing that by thee we enjoy great

Quietness, and that very worthy Deeds are done
into this Nation by thy Providence ; (2.) We ac-
cept it always, and in all Places, moft noble Felix,
with all Thankfulness : (3.) Yet that I be nat fur-
ther tedious to thee, I pray that thou would'ft bear
us, of thy Clemency, a few Words. A Period of

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ihree Members more simple: (1.) In the Beginning was God, (2.) and the Word was with God, (3.) and the Word was God.

A Period of four Sentences or Members : (1.) A Period of The Father judgetb no Man, (2.) But bath com-four Sentences. mitted all Judgment to the Son ; (3.) Tbat all Men hould bonour the Son, (4.) even as they bonour the Faiber.

Thus much for the Nature of Periods in general, which, as they are the Parts or Members of Discourse, so the more equai, proportionate, sententious, and beautiful they are contrived, the more substantial, perfect, elegant, and agreeable will be the Oration ; and therefore it is a Matter of the greatest Importance to those that speak in Public.

IN Writing we use several Stops or Pauses, The Points or and other Marks or Characters, which are as fol- Stops used in

Writing low, viz. The Comma (,) which stops the Voice while you tell one. The Semicolon (;) pauseth while you tell two. The Colon (:) while you tell three ; and the Period, or full Stop, (.) while you tell four. They are used in a Period according as the Sense of each separate Member is more complete, and the last or full Stop only at the Close of the Period.

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The Marks or Characters used by Writers are Other Marks ibese.

and Charar (1.) An Interrogation (?) when a Question is asked, as, Who?

(2.) A Note of Admiration (!) as, Was ever the like seen!

(3.) An Accent ().
(4.) An Apostrophe, (') as I'll, for, I will.
(5.) An Asterism (*) referring to somewhat in

the Margin.

(6.) An

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