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are five, viz. a, e, i, o, u; and to these may be added the Greek y. The other Letters of the
Alphabet are Consonants. Of these Vowels arise Diphthongs, Diphthongs, which are composed of two Vowels what. in one Syllable ; and they are (1.) Proper DiphProper.
thongs when both the Vowels are pronounced; as ai, in fair ; au, in laud; ee, in Seed; oi, in void;
00, in Food ; and ou, in House. (2.) Improper Improper. Diphthongs, wherein the Sound of one Vowel is
heard alone, and the other suppress'd; as ea, in Tea ; ie, in Fiend; eu, in Eunuch; and such
other. The Meeting of three Vowels in one SylTriphthongs. lable is callid a Triphthong ; as eau, in Beauty ;
ieu, in lieu, adieu, &c. Consonants The Consonants are divided into Mutes and divided into Semi-vowels. The Mutes are so call'd because Mutes,
they can't be pronounced of themselves without a
Vowel; they are Nine, as b, c, d, g, p, q, 1,j, v; Semi-vowels which are founded, bee, cee, dee, &c. The Semiand Liquids. vowels are such as yield an imperfect Sound with
out the help of a Vowel ; as f, l, m, n, r, s, x, z. Of which these four, l, m, n, r, are call’d Liquids, because they easily and smoothly flow away after a Mute in ‘a Syllable, as in glide, smile, gnaw, brine ; but they cannot be founded in the same
Syllable before a Mute when a Vowel follows; as Single and rpo, ldi, &c. Consonants are also consider'd as Double. Single, as b, c, d, &c. or Double, as x and z;
for x is composed of cs ; as Vex sounds the same as Vecs; Wax, as Wacs, &c. Also z is made of ds; as blaze sounds bladfe nearly, the d being turn'd of in a strong Sibilation or Hilling.
mar, Profidy,wbar. PROSODY is the second part of Grammar,
which treats of Syllables and their due Division and
Pronunciation in Words; and in respect of this Orthoepy, latter Part, 'tis call'd Orthoepy, or the right what,
Speaking or expressing of Words and Syllables.
rity of Voice, and due Accenting of Syllables in Words. As to the former, it properly relates to Poetry; the rest will be here consider'd in Order.
A Syllable is a compleat Sound or Utterance of A Syllable, one or more Letters, in one Breath or Tone ; in what. which there must be always one or more Vowels; as a, ve, nue; , ri, ent : These make the larger Members of Words; as a-ve-nue, o-ri-ent. And the Number of Syllables is various in Words ; from One, as I ; to Eleven, as in this long Word, Ho-no-ri-fi-ca-bi-li-tu-di-ni-ty. There are generally as many Syllables as Vowels or Diphthongs in a Word, excepting the final e : As e-ver, e-ve-ry, de-face, trans-late, par-boil, blood-bound, a-dieu, &c.
As to the Ortboepy or duly pronouncing Let- The principal ters and Syllables in Words, take the following
cerning the Rules. (1.) The final e lengthens the Vowel
Orthoepy and foregoing; as can, cane ; bed, bede ; pip, pipe ; Orthography, rob, robe; tun, tune. (2.) Words in re found or the right the e before the r, like u ; as Fire, Fi-ur ; De- pronouncing
and writing fire, Defi-ur ; Rere, Re-ur; Massacre, Massac-ur ; Letters and Maugre, Maug-ur. (3.) The Latin improper Syllables ire Diphthongs a, a, are founded e; as Cæsar, Phæ- Words. bus, Ætna, Economy, are pronounced Cesar, Pbebus, Etna, Economy. (4.) Also the English Diphthong eo often sounds only the e; as Yeoman, Feoffee, Jeopardy, Leopard ; and like ee in Peaple, Feodary : And eu at the beginning of Words founds only u; as Eunuch, Eulogy, Eucharift ; so does ue at the End, as due, true, pursue.. (5.) U makes the g found hard and lengthens the Syllable in Vogue, Prologue, Epilogue, Dialogue. (6.) C sounds hard like k before a, o, u, l, r; as Cat, Coft, Cup, clear, Crow : before e, i, and as City, Cell, Cypress. (7.) Ch is founded like k, in Cbart, Chord, Character. (8.) The Syllables ļi and ci, if follow'd by a Vowel, sound like si, or shi ; as in Fiction, Condition, Logician, Musi
cian, &c. (9.) K begins Words of a hard Sound before i, e, and n; as keep, kill, know ; but before a, o, u, we write c; as call, cold, cup. (10.) G has a hard Sound before a, 0,1; as Gall, Gold, Guilt, and in Ghess for Guess. (11.) In Words where cc is found between in the first c is hard, the other soft likes, as the Word Siccity sounds Siksity. (12.) When 88 occurs, they are both hard, as dogged, rugged. (13.) In Words ending in ck, 'tis most polite to omit the k; as for Logick, Musick, Physick, should be wrote Logic, Music, Physic. (14.) The soft Sound of G before a, 0, 1, at the Beginning of Words is express’d by j consonant, as Jail, Jolly, Julep ; and Jentleman is truer Orthography than Gen. tleman. (15.) The Sound of f, in Greek Words must be wrote with ph; as Physic, Philosophy, Philip, Phlegm, &c. (16.) The Syllable que at the End, is founded like k; as antique, pique, barque ; and q is never written without u after it. (17.) In some or moft French Words, cb is founded like sh; as Machine, Chevalier, Capuchin, Chaise, are founded Maheen, Shevalier, CapuSheen, Shaize. (18.) The final e makes a distinct Syllable in Foreign Words which end therein, as
Mam-re, Eu-11-ce, Si-mi-le. The Rules of In Diaftasis, or the Division of Words into SylDialalis or
lables, observe the following Rules. (1.) When Spelling:
a single Consonant comes between two Vowels, 'tis join’d with the Latter in Spelling, as Na-ture, e-ve-ry, di-li-gent ; except *, which is join'd with the first, as Lex-i-con, Ox-en. (2.) But compound Words must be divided back into their component Parts ; as un-armed, un-usual, fafe-iy, in-ure, ad-orn, namie-less, &c. (3.) All Terminations must be separated, as deliver-ed, deliveredt, deliver-eth, deliver-est, deliver-ing, deliver-er, deliver-ance, &c. (4.) All those Consonants which cin begin a Word, may begin a Syllable together ;
and such are bl, cl, fi, gl, pl, ll; br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr, wr; ch, dw, gn, sn, fp, fq; kn, qu, sc,
fm, ft, fw, th, tw, wh; also these treble Consonants ; sib, scr, sr, skr, spr, spl, str, thr, tbw. (5.) A Mute and Liquid go together in the last Syllable ; as Cra-dle, ti-tle, Fa-ble, mau-gre, &c. (6.) If two Consonants meet that can't begin a Word, they must be divided ; as sel-dom, num-ber, pop-py, ac-cord, ar-dent, &c. (7.) When two Vowels meet, and both are distinctly sounded, they must be divided ; as re-enter, mu-tu-al, La-o-di-ce-a, di-ur-nal, &c.
The true Accenting of Words is a difficult thing, Of Accenting as it is a rising or falling of the Voice above or be- Words, and low its usual Tone: It is an Art somewhat arbi- the principal trary, and of which we have but little Use, and
thereto. know scarce any thing but by the Laws of Custom. However the following Directions may be of Service in this Affair. (1.) When a Word is both the Name of a Thing, and signifies Action, the first Syllable is accented in the former Cafe, but the last in the latter ; as in the Name itself áccent ; but accént, to raise or fall the Voice ; Cóiltest, a Dispute ; to contéft, to dispute ; Récord, a Writing ; to record, to commit to Writing, &c. (2.) When any Ending, as -able, -ful, -ijh, &c. is join'd to any Monosyllable, the first Syllable is long or accented ; as Peace-able, sín-ful, self-ish, toil-fome, gód-ly, &c. (3.) Words of two Syllables ending in er, or, ure, are accented on the first generally ; as enter, ráther, Hónor or Honour, venture, &c. (4.) When a Word obscurely ends in -le or -en, the Accent is on the first Syllable ; as Troúble, Gárden. (5.) When Particles are compounded with Words of one Syllable, they lengthen the Word ; as allúre, collégue, polluté, refér, defér ; except Conduit, pérfect, Prélate, and some others. (6.) If an Ending be added to
a Word of two Syllables, the Syllable that was first long continues so, as Prófit, Próftable ; except Protéft, Prótestant. (7.) In Words of more than two Syllables, the Accent is generally on the third Vowel from the laft; as Salvátion, Damnátion, Fidélity, &c. Except (8.) When the Vowel is long by Position, i. e. when set before two or more Consonants, and bears bard upon them, then it is long; as abundance, accomplish, illéftrate, Horizon, &c. (9.) Diphthongs and Triphthongs are mostly long, as embroider, reproof, rejóice, Receipt, Beauty, adiéu, except Lieuténant, &c. (10.) In foreign Words, the Accent lies on that Vowel, which, in the Original, was a Diphthong, as Darius, Encómium, Eclipsis, Eccopè, équal, &c. But to this Rule there are several Exceptions. These are the principal Rules both for
Accent and Quantity in the English Tongue. Etymology or
ETYMOLOGY or ANALOGY is the Analogy, third and most considerable Part of Grammar, what.
as it treats of the Nature, Kinds, and various Accidents and Affections of Words, which compofe
the Body or Substance of a Language. Of Words,and Words are composed (as aforesaid) of one or
more Syllables, by the Sound whereof we convey Parts of Speech.
our Sentiments to others, and by this Means Men are render'd conversable or social Beings. Of Words, in every Speech, there are reckon'd eight several Sorts ; viz. (1.) The Noun, or Name; (2.) Pronoun, or personal Name; (3.) Verb, the Word signifying Astion or Passion; (4.) Participle ; (5.) Adverb ; (6.) Conjunction ; (7.) Preposition ; (8.) Interjection. These are call's the Eight Parts of Speech ; of all which in their
Order. The Accidents A Noun is the Name of a Thing, absolutely, of Nouns.
and without Regard to Person, Time or Place. Of Nouns there are in English the following Ac