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side over all the Actions of Life from the Cradie to the Grave.

The Sixth Class were those call'd Demi-Gods and Heroes, who were very numerous; as Hercules, Theseus, Perseus, Æsculapius, Prometheus, Atlas, Orpheus and Amphion, Achilles, Ulstjes, Orion, Castor and Pollux, Jason ; and a Multitude of others, of whom it were tedious to recount an bundredib Part of what is recorded of their valiant Exploits, and heroic and incredible Atchievments; which you may read at leisure in the Fabulous Poets.

The Seventh and last Class of Heathen Deities were those I term’d Modal Deities; and are the same as mention'd under the sixth Species of Idolatry before-going, of which I shall say no

more. The Pantheon. The Temple which the Romans built, and

therein placed the Images of all the Gods and Goddelles, was called the Pantheon, or Temple of all the Gods; which when it came into the Hands of Christians, Pope Boniface III. dedicated to the Virgin Mary and All Saints; which was analogous to its former Use and Honour. But this is only one Thing in which the Papists beatbenize,

amongst many others. The Meat' and Tho' the Pagans had such a Multiplicity of Drink of the Deities, not one of them could live without EatGods, AmbroJia and Nectar. ing and Drinking ; but to solve this, they artfully

found out a Food calld Ambrosia, and a Drink calld Nectar ; both which, besides the most sweet and delicious Taste and Flavour, had the Property of communicating Immortality: With these therefore they had the good Manners to feed their Gods; and by this means, of mortal Men they made what Number of immortal Deities they pleas'd; the chief of which are those we now discours'd of.

THE The Festivals and Solemnities of the Heathen Of the Heawere necessarily very many, since almost every

then Festivals. particular Deity was allow'd those sacred Honours: As the Saturnalia, Feast of five Days Continuance dedicated to Saturn; Adonia, to Adonis ; Ambarvalia sacred to Ceres; Bacchanalia and Orgia, Liberalia, Dionysia, all the Feafts of Baccbus ; Cerealia, others of Ceres ; Lemuria, of the Lemures or Night Ghosts ; Lupercalia, of the God Pan; Munycbia, of Minerva ; Faunalia, of the Fauns ; Anthefphoria, of Proserpine ; Megalesia, of Cybele ; Floralia, of Flora ; with numberless others; all which were celebrated in a Manner suitable to their Notions of the Deities to which they were dedicated,

The Pagans distinguished the Priests peculiar Pagan Priesis. to each Divinity by different Appellations also. Thus the Luperci were the Priests of Pan; Flamen Dialis, the Priest of Jove; Flamen Quirinalis, of Romulus; Flamen Martialis, of Mars; Virgines Vestales, or the Vestal Virgins, Priestesses of Vesta; Galli, Priests of Cybele; Phabades, of Apollo, &c.

The different Heathen Nations of the World The Names of give the following Names to the Priests, viz. Priests in seThe Romans call theirs Flamines ; the ancient veral Nations. Britons theirs Druids; the Indians theirs Brachmans ; the Mogul's Indians theirs Daroes or Harbods; the Persians theirs Sedre; the Tartarians theirs Lama; the Moroccos theirs Alfaquis; and the Canada West-Indians theirs Pawwaws; the Chinese and Japonese call theirs Bonzes.

In Sacrifices, the Beasts offer'd to the Celestial The Beafts apGods were wbite, and those to the Infernal ones propriated in black: To Jupiter they sacrificed a white Ox; to

Sacrifices.
Neptune, Mars, and Apollo, a Bull, Ram, and
Boar; to Ceres they offer'd Milk, Honey, and
the Sow-Pig; to Æfculapius Goats and Poultry ;

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to the Lares a Cock; to the Sun and Mars an
Horse ; to Juno a She-Lamb; to Venus a Dove
or Pigeon ; to Diana a Crow; to Pan and Mi-

nerva She-Goats; and Kids to the Fauns. The Beasts,

Of Beats, the Lamb was sacred to Juno ; Fowl, Trees, Lions to Vulcan; the Hind to Hercules; the &c. facred to Wolf to Apollo; the Horse to Mars; the Calf the Gods.

to Isis ; Dogs to the Lares; Serpents to Æfcu-
lapius ; the Grashopper to Apollo ; the Dragon
to Minerva, Bacchus, &c. Among the Birds,
the Hawk was sacred to Apollo; the Eagle to
Jove ; the Goofe to Juno; the Dove to Venus;
the Crow to Apollo ; the Cock to Æsculapius,
Minerva, and Mars ; Owls to Minerva ; the
Vultur to Mars; the Phenix to the Sun. Among
the Trees, the Fir was facred to Bacchus; the Cy.
press to Pluto; the Cedar to the Furies; the Ash
to Mars ; the Oak to Jove ; the Laurel to Apol-
lo; the Myrtle to Venus; the Olive to Minerva ;
the Poplar to Hercules ; the Pine to Cybele ; the
Rose to Venus ; the Vine to Bacchus, &c.

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II3

Of MYTHOLOGY; or the

EXPLANATION of the FABULOUS
HISTORIES of the He ATHEN
Gods and HERO E S.

M

ÝTHOLOGY is the Interpreta- Mythology,
tion of the Fabulous Stories con- what.
cerning the Pagan Deities, Heroes,
Monsters, &c. according to the
Historical, Moral, and Philofo-

phical Meaning and Signification of each, couch'd under and disguised by Poetic Fiction and Romantic Circumstances of various forts.

Most of these Fables and fixtitious Relations The Origin of took their Rise from the sacred Scriptures of the Heathen FaOld Testament ; as plainly appears from Hefiod's bles from tbe Theogony or Genealogy of the Gods, and Ovid's Scriptures. Metamorphoses. For Hefiod deduces the Pedigree of all his fabulous Deities originally from Chaos, Chaos. which he makes the First of all the Gods. Thus Mofos derives the World with all its Beauties and Glory froni an original Chaos, or a confused and undigested Heap of Matter ; which he says was witbout Form and void.

HESIOD tells us, that immediately after The Analog Chaos, appear'd Tellus, Tartarus and Amer; by

between Tellús he meant the Earth, by Tartarus the un

Moses's Hi.

story and HeJeen Abyss in or under the Earth, and by Amor iod's Fiction, the lovely Beauty and Harmony of the World. in his Theog orry

. I

Agreeably

Agreeably to this Mofes, after he mentions the Chaotic State of the Earth, speaks of the Face of the Deep'or Abyss, and then the regular Disposition and beautiful Order of the World by the divine Wisdom and Power of the Creator ensued ; in which things there is an evident Analogy between them.

AUAIN, Hefiod tells us that Chaos brought forch Erebus and Noxh, that is, Gloominess and Night : And Moses says, that while the Earth was in the Chaos, a Gloomy Darkness overspread it, and all was Night ; for there was no Light. Again Hesiod says, From Nox, or Night, sprang Ælher and Hemera, that is, Air. and the Day; and that they were produced, when Amor and Erebus were mix'd together ; that is, when Light was divided from the Darkness, and both together made one Day. All which exactly answers Moses's Account of the Creation of

the Firmament, the Day and the Night. Helicd's The. HESIOD farther tells us that Tellus begat cal imitation Calum, every way equal to itself, and befit with of Moses's

Stars, and which cover'd the whole Earth, and Coforogony or was the Seat of the blessed Gods. That is in Creation of the Moses's Words, God made and callid the Dry

Land Earth (Tellus,) and the Firmument he called Heaven (Cælum,) in which are the Stars, which he made also. He farther tells that the Earth (Tellus,) begat high Mountains and delightful Caves of the Goddeles Nymphs ; as also Pelagus and Portus (Seas ;) agreeable to the Mosaic Account of the Dry Land, and the Seas. Then he relates the Birth of Oceanus (the Ocean,) and a vast Progeny of other Deities, amongst which was Saturnus, froin the Embraces of Tellus and Cælum, or the Energy and prolific Influences of the Earth and the Heavens ; and by this Means he fills the World as full of terrestrial, celestial, and marine

Gods,

World.

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