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men, and small things, is lost, that of the truly great bocomes more bright. The contemporary aspect of things is often confused and indistinct. The oye, which is placed too near the canvass, beholds, too distinctly, the separate touches of the pencil, and is perplexed with a cloud of seemingly discordant tints. It is only at a distance, that they melt into a harmonious, living picture."

Nor does .s detract from the honour of the eminent person ages, who were conspicuous in the transactions of our car. lier history, that they foresaw not all the glorious consequences of their actions. Not one of our pilgrim fathers, it may be safely conjectured, had a distinct anticipation of the future progress of our country. Neither Smith, Newport, nor Gosnold, who led the emigrants of the south ; nor Carver, Brewster, Bradford, or Standish, who conducted those of the north; looked forward to results like those which are witnessed by the present generation. But is the glory of their enterprise thereby diminished ! By no means ; it shines with an intenser light. They foresaw nothing with certainty, but hardships and sacrifices. These, they deliberately and manfully encountered. They went forward unassured, that even common prosperity would attend their enterprise They breasted themselves to every shock; as did the vessel which bore them, to the waves of the ocean.

Or, to take an example which has a more direct reference to the work before vis; it may be fairly conjectured, that not

member of the illustrious assembly that declared the Inde pendence of America, had any adequate conception of the great events which were disclosed in the next half centary. But, wil this detract from their merit in the estimation of posterity ! again wo say, it will enhance that merit. In the great national crisis of 1776, the minds of the leading men were wrought op to the highest pitch of fervour. They glowed with the loftiest enthusiasm. The future was, indeed, indistinct; but it was full of all that was momentous. What the particular consummation would be, they could not foresce. But conscious of their own magnanimous designs, and in a bumble relianco on divine providence, they pledged to each

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atbor, their lives, their fortunes, and their acrod honou, either to die in the assertion of their unalienable rights, or to establish American liberty upon a solid foundation. The morit of these men, and of all who contributed to the happy condition of our republic, should be measured, by the grandeur of the actual consequences of their enterprise, although the precise extent of those consequences could not then have been foreseen.

In a work, whose professed object is, to speak of men who lived and flourished in the days of our revolutionary struggle, we have little to do with the motives which indoced the first settlers of our country to seek an asylum in what was then an unexplored wilderness. Nor is this the place to record the thousand sufferings which they endured, before the era of their landing; or their numberless sorrows and deprivations, while establishing themselves in the rude land of their adoption. The heroic and christian virtues of our fathers will occupy • conspicuous page in history, while the world shall stand.

Nor does it belong to our design, to enter minutely into the early history of the colonies, interesting as that history is. An outline, only, will be necessary, to understand the causes of that memorable event in the history of our countoy-Tho Declaration of American Independence and to introduce to our more particular notice, the eminent men who proclaimed that independence to the world.

The year 1607 is the era of the first settlement of the English in America. During the interval between this date, and the year 1732, thirteen colonies were established ; · Vir. ginis being the first, and Georgia the last. The others were Massachusetts, Connecticut, New-Hampshire, Rhode Island, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the two Carolinas.

In the settloment of these colonies, three forms of government were established. These were severally denominatod, charter, proprietary, and royal governments. This differ

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ence arose from the different circumstances which attended the settlement of different colonies, and the diversified view of the early emigrants. The charter governments were confined to New-England. The proprietary governments were those of Maryland, Ponnsylvania, the Carolinas, and the Jersics. The two formor remained such, until the American rovolution; the two latter became royal governments long bofore that period. In the charter governments, the people enjoyed the privileges and powers of self government; in the proprietary governments these privileges and powers were vested in the proprietor, but he was required to have the advice. assent, and approbation of the greater part of the freemen, or their deputies; in the royal governments, the governor and council were appointed by the crown, and the people electod representatives to serve in the colonial legislatures."

Undor these respective forms of government, the colonists might have enjoyed peace, and a good share of liberty, had human nature been of a different character. But all the colonies were soon more or less involved in troubles of various kinds, arising, in part, from the indefinite tenor of the charter and proprietary graats; but more than all, from the carly jealousy which prevailed in the mother country with respect to the colonies, and the fixed determination of the crown to keep them in humble subjection to its authority.

The colonies, with the exception of Georgia, had all been established, and had attained to considerable strength, without even the slightest aid from the parent country. Whatever was expended in the acquisition of territory from the Indians, proceeded from the private resources of the European adventarers. Neither the crown, nor the parliament of England, made any compensation to the original masters of the soil; nor did they in any way contribute to those improvements which 80 soon bore testimony to the industry and folligonco of the planter. The settlement of the province of Massachusetts Bay alone cost 200,0001. ;-un enormous sum at that poriod. Lord Baltimore expended 40,0001., for

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his contingent, in the establishment of his colony in Mary. land. On that of Virginia, immense wealth was lavishod; and we'are told by Trumbull, that the first planters of Con - Docticat consumed great estates in purchasing lands from the Indians, and making their settlements in that province, in addition to large sums previously expended in the procuring of . their patents, and of the rights of pre-emption."

It is conceded by historians of every party, that from the carliest settlements in America, to the period of the revolu. tion, the parent country, so far u her om unsettled stato . would permit, pursued towards those settlements a couro of direct opprossion. Without the enterprise to establish colonies herself, she was ready, in the very dawn of their exist ence, to claim them as her legitimate possessions, and to proscribe, in almost cvery minute particular, the policy they should pursue. Her jealousies, coeval with the foundation of the colonies, increased with every succeeding year; and led to a course of arbitrary exactions, and lordly oppressione, which resulted in the rupture of those tios that bound the colonies to the parent country.

No soonor did the colonios, omorging from the fooblences and poverty of their incipient state, begin to direct their at tention to commerce and manufactures, than they were subjected by the parent country to many ventious regulation, which seemed to indicate, that with regard to those subjects, thoy were expected to follow that line of policy, which she in her wisdom should mark out for them. At overy indian tion of colonial prosperity, the complaints of the commercial and the manufacturing interests in Great Britain wore lond and clamourous, and repeated demands were made apon the British government, to correct the growing ovil, and to keep the colonies in duo subjection. The colonista," wid the complainanta, "are beginning to carry on trade ;-thoy will soon be our formidablo rivals: thoy are already setting up manufactures they will soon set up for independenco.'

To the increase of this fovorisa excitement in the parent

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