himself, in the Last Supper and the Baltic of Anghiari, had shown the originality and power with which he could treat mental struggle and physical effort.

Cesare da Sesto was also an occasional imitator of Leonardo. He oscillates between him and Raphael, except, indeed, when—as in his brilliant Madonna in the Brera (no. 265)—he makes an excursion into the style of Peruzzi or Correggio. The horses in one of his studies for his Adoration of the Magi, now in the Accademia at Venice, are a flagrant imitation of Leonardo.1

The two most brilliant disciples of the leader of the Milanese school, Antonio Bazzi, surnamed II Sodoma, and Bernardino Luini, may never, possibly, have had the good fortune to listen to his counsels. I will give no fresh description in. this place of the gifts of these two incomparable artists, nor of those of their successor, Gaudenzio Ferrari: my readers will allow me to refer them to the third volume of my Histoirc dc FArt pendant la Renaissance, in which I have striven to make their work known, and win both admiration and affection for it. I will only point out that the loving care, amounting to minute attention, which Leonardo lavished on the least of his productions, does not characterise either Luini or II Sodoma. Both these artists betray a tendency to generalisation, without any recourse to those endless researches which have as much to do with science as with art. They do not, in fact, belong to the fifteenth century, and they were able, thanks to the efforts of their glorious forerunner, to make free use of the formulae he had so laboriously acquired. There is something literary, too, in their genius. They are more fitted for the brilliant development of some given subject, than inclined to strive after the solution of a technical problem, the rendering of some effect of light, the defining of some physiognomy, or characteristic object. In a word, there is as much of the poet in them as of the painter.

1 Morelli, Die GaUrien zu Mibichen und Dresden, p. 120 (with reproduction).—Among the most fervent of Leonardo's Milanese imitators was the painter and writer, Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo (born in Milan 1538, died about 1600). Lomazzo collected a large number of the master's works, pictures, drawings and manuscripts, from which he diligently sought inspiration. His sight failed him, however, while he was still a young man, and he then applied himself to literary labours, historical and theoretical, in which we find much precious information concerning the great founder of the Milanese school.

Portrait painting holds quite a secondary position in their artistic work; for they looked upon individual men and women merely as actors in their skilfully conceived and eloquently rendered scenes. They have none of the eager and untiring curiosity of their master.

Is it a fact that the Venetian school, in spite of much apparent affinity, never felt the effect of Leonardo's influence? It has been asserted that neither in Giorgione's work nor in that of Lorenzo Lotto, who has been occasionally described as one of the pupils of the leader of the Milanese school, can the slightest trace of any of Leonardo's teaching be discovered.1 As far as Giorgione is concerned, at all events, I have already demonstrated that his familiarity with Leonardo's work and tendencies was far greater than has been believed.

Titian's Tribute Money has appeared to several modern critics to attempt the same problems as the Last Supper in the Refectory of Sta. Maria delle Grazie.3

The Kingdom of Naples is represented in this connection by the painters Francesco Napoletano and Girolamo Aliprandi. The former may be studied in the Brera Gallery in a Virgin seated and holding the Child (no. 263 A), brown in colour, after the style of Boltraffio. The Child's eyes are puffy, the expression of the Virgin is irresolute. The type, with its high chin, somewhat recalls that of Leonardo's drawing in the Uffizi. It also reminds us of the Madonna Litta. Francesco Napoletano seems to have settled very early in the sixteenth century at Valencia, in Spain, and never to have left that country again. A set of Scenes from the Life of the Virgin (1506) in the Cathedral of Valencia, is of a pronounced Leonardesque character. As for Girolamo Alibrando, or Aliprandi, of Messina (1470—1524), he studied Leonardo with so much ardour for his Presentation in the Temple in the Duomo at Messina, that the picture was long ascribed to the master.4

In the seventeenth century, Rubens studied Leonardo da Vinci's work with passionate eagerness, and paid eloquent homage to the greatness of his genius. When he passed through Milan he made a drawing of the Last Supper. We also owe him the copy of the centra] group in the Battle of Anghiari. Rembrandt, too, laid Leonardo under contribution.

1 Morelli, Die Galerien in Miinchen unci Dresden, p. 202-203.

'-' Ilistoire itc I' Art pendant la Renaissance, vol. iii., p. 600.

3 See Springer, Bilder aus der neueren Kunstgcschichte, 2nd ed., vol. ii., p. 82.

* Memorie de, Pittori Messinesi, Messina, 1821 pp. 29-34.—// Cicerone.

My readers will thus realise the number of directions in which the influence of Leonardo disseminated itself. And this without taking into account either Correggio, or his own immediate pupils and. imitators,—Salai, Boltraffio, Marco d'Oggione, Cesare da Sesto, Andrea Solario, Melzi, Bernardino Luini, II Sodoma, Gaudenzio Ferrari.

We learn from the old legend that a single drop of milk frcfrn Juno's breast produced the Milky Way. Thus one look from the great Leonardo has sufficed to fill Italy and all Europe with masterpieces. Everywhere the seed sown by this mighty magician has brought forth fruit an hundredfold.

1 Gazette des Beaux Arts, March,' 1892.—Kef>ertoriutn, 1893, vol. xvi. no. 1.

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A "CATALOGUE RAISONNE" of the whole work of Leonardo, pictures and

drawings, would extend this biography to unreasonable limits; for it would

afford material for several substantial volumes. I must perforce confine myself to the

enumeration of the chief things ascribed to him, many of which, by the way, have no right

to bear the master's name.

A readily made collation of tny work with those of Venturis Gault de St. Germain,2 Fallardi,3 Rigollot? Arshie Houssaye? and Mrs. Hcaton? will show with what an enormous mass of materials / have had to deal. Putting aside those works, the history of which has already been set forth by Rigollot, I shall mainly devote myself to the publication of as many new facts as possible.

Leonardo, like Michelangelo {who did, hmvever, by exception put his name on the "J'ield" in St. Peter's), never signed his works, so that endless discussion has gone on, and is likely to continue to the end of time, as to the authenticity of his various drawings and pictures?

As the foregoing volumes contain descriptions and discussions of every picture ascribed to him with any shmu of probability, I need here do no more than recapitulate them, for the sake of completeness.

1 Essai sur les Ouvragc. physico-matht'matiques de Leonard de Vinci, Paris, 1797. 'Traits de la Peinture, ed. of 1820, p. 53 el seq.

3 Disegni di Leonardo da Vinci, Milan, 1830.

4 Catalogue de /'QZttvie de Leonard de Vinci, Paris, 1849.

5 Hisloire de Leonard de Vinci, Paris, 1869.

6 Leonardo da Vinci and his Works, London, 1874.

7 See Uzielli's Ricerche, 1st ed., vol. ii., p. 432-441, on the orthography of the name Da Vinci, and on the supposed marks or monograms used liy Leonardo.

VOL. II. I 1

As for false Leonardos, Ihe list is so interminable that it would be impossible as well as useless to enumerate them here. I must be content, therefore, to refer the reader to previous catalogues, restricting myself to a few general observations on pictures erroneously ascribed to the master, and on such as have disappeared.

Mention of a jew other pictures ascribed to Leonardo wilt be found in the "Raccolta di Cataloghi ed Inventarii inedili," published by G. Campari {Modena, 1870), and in the Catalogue of the Milanese Exhibition, held at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1898 {"OS. 39-42, 47, 59, 60, etc.).

To avoid increasing the s1ze of this volume I shall publish a bibliography of Leonardo separately.




The Temptation of Adam and Eve, vol. i.,

P- 47-
The Annunciation, Louvre (ascribed), vol. i.,

PP- 45, 49-5'

The Annunciation, Ut'fizi (ascribed), vol. i., pp. 1, 50-51.

The Virgin and Child, Dresden (falsely ascribed), vol. i., p. 52, note.

The Virgin with the Pink, Munich (ascribed), vol. i., p. 51-52. Replica in the Louvre.

The l.itta Madonna, or Vierge au Sein, Hermitage (ascribed), vol. i., p. 175-176. Reproduced, vol. i., pl. xii. This picture is usually considered identical with one which was in the house of Michele Contarini, in Venice, in the year 1543. Signor Frizzoni, however, calls attention to the fact that the Petersburg picture is larger than the one formerly in Venice {Notizie tfOpere di Disegno, pp. 225-226).

The Vierge aux Rochers, or Madonna of the Rocks,Louvre, vol. i., pp. 162-175,211. Rep.,vol. i., pl. vii. Besides the example in the National Gallery a certain number of other old copies or free repetitions of this Madonna are known. In the first place, we have the example acquired by M. Cheramy in 1897, at the Plessis-Belliere sale (canvas, 1 m. 55 cm. x 1 m. 25 cm. See the Reunion des Socit'tes des Beaux Arts des Dt'partements of 1890, and the Revue de PArt ancien ct moderne, of 1897, vol. ii., p. 405). This remarkable picture is a little rubbed in the carnations; the hands of the two children are retouched, and so are the feet of the Child Jesus. The Virgin's bodice shows a greenish tone, which seems suspicious, and we may say

the same of her yellowish drapery. In the distance, to the left, the dome of the Cathedral of Florence shows among the rocks.

Other copies exist in the Nantes Museum {Inventaire des Richesses tf Art de la France), in the Weber Collection at Hamburg (Woermann, Wissenschaftliches Verzeichniss der dlteren Gemiilde der Galerie Weber in Hamburgj Dresden, 1892, p. 86), in the collection of Madame Chaix d'Est-Ange, 22 Avenue du 1iois dc Boulogne, Paris.

The Naples Museum possesses a free and imperfect version, ascribed to Niccol6 dell' Abbate.

A free copy, ascribed to Cesare da Sesto,

figured at the sale of the Marchese D

of Genoa, in 1888. {Impresa di Venditc in Italia di Giulio Sambon, Catalogo della Col

lezione del Marchese D , di Genova. Milan,

1888. No. 216, with a photograph of the picture.)

Another free copy of the central group, with an Annunciation to the Shepherds in the background, belonged some fifty years ago to the English (?) picture dealer Coesvelt (MiillerWalde, p. 117). For other copies see the Cicerone, seventh edition, p. 739 [and the Burlington Catalogue above quoted.—Ed.].

The Holy Family of the Hermitage, original lost, vol. ii., p. 181. Rep-, vol. ii., pl. xviii.

The Vierge au Bas-Relief, original lost, vol. ii., p. 181-182. The Earl of Carysfort has the copy ascribed to Cesare da Sesto, which was long at Gatton Park. It was exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1898. For other copies see Rigollot (p. 32-40).

The Madonna del Gatlo, original lost, vol. ii., p. 183-184.

The Virgin with the Distaff, original lost.

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