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as one of the librarians informed me, some of them would be published, while the most horrid and disgraceful of them would be burned. There may have been twenty or thirty cartloads of them, and they doubtless contained numerous records of savage and bloodthirsty cruelty, such as would make one's blood run cold with horror. By my own hand, and by employing another, I took extracts from some of these trials; but, unfortunately, was afterwards compelled to leave them, with my other baggage, in the hands of Spanish banditti, who have never taken the trouble to return them to me.
Many of the books in the public library were taken from the Jesuits, when, about the middle of the last century, they were suppressed in Portugal, by that severe and energetic minister, the Marquis Pombal. But, besides this library, the government is now forming a vast collection of books and paintings, from all the convents in Portugal, which have been recently suppressed. They are placed in an immense building, formerly occupied by Franciscan monks. There are, at present, 350,000 volumes, and 6,640 paintings. When the collection is finished, it is thought there will be 1,300,000 volumes. A large proportion of these are valuable folios and quartos, most of which are well bound, and in a good state of preservation, and some of them ancient and valuable.
We were much interested in examining the original logbook of that famous hero and navigator, Don John De Castro, interspersed with charts of his discoveries, and drawings of the men and animals he met with, all done with a pen, and signed with his own name. Among these was an accurate sketch of New Holland, under the name of New Java, dated 1580, though the Dutch have always had the credit of first discovering that island a century later than the date above. There was also a book of manuscript charts, dated 1571, in which there was a correct draft of the coast of North America, from Labrador to Cape Cod. One reason why so little has been known of the early Portuguese discoveries, is found in the fact that death was the punishment of any one who should furnish foreign nations with a chart of any of their possessions abroad. There was also in this library a splendid manuscript edition of the Bible, with beautiful pictures of Scripture scenes and characters. It is in seven folio volumes, magnificently bound, and only two years were employed in writing it, namely, from 1495 to 1497. The French removed it to Paris when in possession of Portugal, but it was restored by the treaty of 1814.
The paintings taken from the convents are, many of them, of little value ; but still a selection might be made from them of works of high value, by the first masters. There are among them some peculiarly striking Scripture scenes, religious sketches, and devotional heads of ancient saints and martyrs.
The English have a neat chapel in the outskirts of Lisbon, in which 200 or 300 worship according to the forms of their national church; connected with which is a beautiful graveyard, where, beneath the shade of the cypress and the yew, some of our own countrymen repose. Fielding, the English novelist, was buried there, and a large and expensive monument was in the course of erection over his grave, paid for by the English residents in Lisbon. Such is the poor reward of human fame; – to have one's bones borne down and crushed by a heavier load of marble than rests upon the grave of him who never trod the pathway to eminence. The spot on which I gazed with the most interest, however, was that where repose the ashes of the pious and venerable Dr. Doddridge, the well-known author of the chastely written, judicious, and devout “ Exposition of the New Testament," of the “Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul," and other excellent practical and devotional works. His monument was erected in 1828, by Thomas Taylor, then the only surviving pupil of Dr. D. And well he might be so, for seventy-eight years had then elapsed since the death of the worthy instructer.
When the Jesuits were suppressed, much of their wealth was devoted to the founding of hospitals and public schools for the poor. The hospital of St. Joseph, which we visited with much interest, was formerly a Jesuit convent, and is supported by their funds. It has single wards 600 feet in length, and so broad that they will easily accommodate 500 patients each. The number of both sexes in the hospital, at the time of our visit, was upwards of 1,200. The apartments were neat and clean ; and well furnished private rooms are provided for the clergy who are sick, and for such patients as are able to pay. The charge for such is about three-fourths of a dollar a day.
The insane patients were by themselves; and the men, under the direction of one of their number, had covered the walls of their ward with paintings of men, trees, and various kinds of animals. They had also a good supply of cats and dogs running about among them for their amusement. As
we mingled with these patients, some were abstracted and melancholy; others in the attitude of deep thought; while others still were strutting about in fancied greatness, or showing us all the polite and graceful attentions of the finished courtier. Then howling maniacs in their cells, completed this sad drama of the human mind in ruins.
We were shown two rooms which were made for a former patient, who is spoken of as “ The strong man.” So great was his strength, and so furious was he, that none of the common doors, grates, and bars, even of a mad house, would secure him, and hence these apartments, with walls and doors strong enough to confine a giant, were prepared for him. One of them he occupied, when the other was to be cleaned and aired. He had been a soldier, and killed several of his comrades, and even his own family, before he was known to be insane. It was then recollected that he had received a wound in his head during a battle, which was the probable cause of his insanity. In the door of one of his cells was a round hole, about six inches in diameter, through which he once struck with his fist a poor insane friar (who was looking in upon him) such a blow, as to break his skull and kill him.
The female patients exhibited the peculiarities of their sex, and amused us by their powers of speech and music. One of them was constantly parading through the room, singing a lively song, with an air that would have well become a queen of all the world. Another was filled with admiration of one of our party, and, in the ardor of her newborn affection, treated him with a polite, devoted, and assiduous attention, infinitely amusing to us, indeed, but still well fitted to win the heart of any one but a cold blooded and confirmed old bachelor.
Connected with the hospital is a medical school, and we saw the Professor of Anatomy giving a lecture and demonstrations to a full class of pupils. The students have every advantage for acquiring a practical knowledge of surgery and anatomy, as well as of the use of medicines and treatment of diseases. Thus has a great advance been made in medical education, as compared with the antiquated and scholastic modes of instruction which once prevailed in Portugal, and are still retained in Spain.
In visiting the raving maniacs confined in cells at Lisbon, and in chains at Genoa, my mind was led, by the force of contrast, to revert with comparative pleasure to the hospital for the insane at Aversa, near Naples. There, every thing is done to benefit and amuse the patients. There is a fine garden in which they may divert themselves, and even the iron grates of the windows are so wrought and painted, as to resemble vases filled with flowers. We there freely mingled with the patients, to the number of two or three hundred, not one of whom was confined. Some were busily employed at various trades, others were learning or practising music in a fine hall, well supplied with various kinds of instruments, or were engaged in other kinds of amusement. They all ate at a common table, which they approached and left at the sound of martial music, and after eating, for a time, all freely mingled together in an enclosure allotted to them. The only distinction among them was, that those who had been professional men, and officers of rank in the army, had better rooms and more costly diet than others. Dr. Bell, the distinguished medical writer, and author of a book on Italy, speaks with much interest of this hospital. He says, that he could hardly convince himself, when there, that he was in the midst of insane persons, so mild and inoffensive were they in their deportment. He attributes this to the kind treatment they receive, the various means furnished for their einployment and amusement, and the marked difference there is between the physical and moral temperament and energy of character of the northern and southern countries of Europe, arising from a difference of climate, modes of living, and government.
In the church of St. Roque, our attention was particularly directed to the chapel of St. John, enclosing one of the side altars. It is adorned with three large copies of paintings in mosaic, presented by one of the Popes. These, with pillars of lapis lazuli, and other splendid ornaments, cost a sum sufficient to erect a spacious and elegant church.
Connected with this church is the foundling Hospital, which was formerly a convent, and is supported by funds taken from the Jesuits. In the front wall is an upright, circular, revolving box, open on one side, in which infants are placed from without, when, by rapping lightly upon it, some one from within turns it, so that it opens inward, and they are immediately taken out and given to a nurse. No questions are asked, nor is any thing known of the children, unless those who leave them attach a paper to the dress, requesting particular names to be given them, that thus at soine future time they may be recognised and claimed. This course, though
it removes a strong temptation to infanticide, has still been found greatly to increase the prevalence of licentiousness and the number of illegitimate births. Many of the children of the virtuous poor, owing to the extreme poverty of their parents, are placed in foundling hospitals, and in one city which I visited, those of four or five years of age were so often brought, that it was found necessary to make the revolving box so small that it would accommodate none but infants.
As the medical gentleman who superintends the Foundling Hospital at Lisbon spoke English well, and had visited the United States, we were soon on good terms with him; and not only did he show us every part of the establishment, but freely gave us all the information respecting it which we desired. When we first met him, he was examining the older class of infants, who had grown to such a size, that the small cord which was put round their necks when they were received, had become so tight as to need changing The ends of this cord were passed through a small pewter medal, stamped with the number, and the initials of the name of each child, that thus they might be identified. . Between two and three thousand had been admitted during the year, and the whole number of children of different ages supported by the institution, was about six thousand. There were in that hospital not far from six hundred, while the rest were either put out under the care of private nurses, or were at branch institutions in various parts of the kingdom. The infants are nursed until one year old, and after this the boys are kept until they are ten, and the girls as long as they choose to stay. The nurses who take the children to their own homes, are paid three dollars a month, and there is no difficulty in obtaining a full supply of them. The infants were lying two in a cradle, their heads at each end, and were covered with gauze to protect them from flies. All parts of the building were extremely neat, wholesome, and well ventilated, while in the rear were a fine garden and playgrounds for the older children. At the public table they have tea two or three times a week, and their principal articles of food are meat, rice, bread, and a mixture of olive oil, warm water, bread and garlick, which is said to be extremely nourishing.
In the schools of the hospital there were more than 100 boys and 250 girls. They were altogether the brightest and best looking collection of children I had ever seen. There was one of them, a little boy about four years old, with a