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ness of their manners, their ignorance, and their notorious immorality. Said he, -" They regard them as a set of blackguards, and so they are." The Jesuits, however, and some of the higher orders of monks, were exceptions to the remarks just made. In Portugal, as elsewhere, the Jesuits acquired immense influence by educating the young, and they are the only order which for a long time have made any important efforts in this way. When, therefore, they were suppressed about the middle of the last century, on account of their political intrigues, none of the other communities of monks, who through envy and jealousy had secretly favored the overthrow of the Jesuits, came forward to take their place as instructers of the young. This neglect of duty has been treasured up against the monks by the people, and aided in their recent suppression. One of the convent estates was sold at auction, while we were at Lisbon, for more than $ 100,000. It produces annually 600 pipes of the best wines in Portugal.
The convents of nuns have been permitted to retain the use of their property, but are forbid to admit any novices, so that when the present inmates die these estates come into the possession of the Government. Many of the convents, in order to avoid the trouble of tenants, had sold their lands and vested their property in Government funds. These funds have been inventoried by Government, and none of the income from them is paid to the nuns, so that many of them are suffering in their convents. There is in Lisbon a convent of English nuns twenty or thirty in number, and the recent Lady Abbess was a cousin of the late Lord Liverpool, so long Prime Minister of England.
The English and French governments interfered to prevent the confiscation of the property of the colleges, existing in Portugal for the education of the youth of their respective countries. There are in Lisbon one English and two Irish colleges, which were established by contributions from Catholics in Great Britain when their schools were suppressed at home. They have similar institutions originating from the same cause in Spain and at Rome. The number of students in the English college at Lisbon is about thirty, all of whom pursue theology with a view to return to their native land as priests. They are sent here when about fourteen years of age, and continue in the college eight or ten years.
The parish clergy in Portugal receive tithes and fees for their support. Bishops have incomes from lands, rents, and other sources, varying from $8,000 to $50,000 a year. Some idea of the tax, imposed upon the people in Catholic countries for the support of their clergy, may be formed from the following statement of persons attached to the Cathedral in Lisbon, and the pay which they receive. Besides the Cardinal Patriarch, who receives $ 15,000 a year, and another dignitary who has $ 1,250, there is one Dean who has $1,500, two Canons, thirteen Beneficiaries, nineteen Chaplains, a Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, an Altar-man, a Bellringer, a Chief Organist, three Assistant Organists, and eleven Players on Instruments, an Upholsterer, a Keeper of the Jewels, a Keeper of Furniture, Servant of the Treasurer, a Keeper of the Ewer, six Mace-bearers, sixteen Sacristans, and thirty-three Singers. These with others make the whole number of persons 135, receiving, in addition to what is paid the first named dignitaries, about $ 67,000 a year. This, too, is but one of many churches in the city of Lisbon.
The number of students in the University of Coimbra, in 1820, was 1,604, in 1835 there were 800, and in the days of its prosperity there were 5,000. Most of the young men from Portugal and Brazil, who receive a liberal education, are sent to France for that purpose.
The Portuguese Navy consists of 1 ship of the line; 2 Frigates in commission and one not so ; 4 Corvettes; 4 Brigs; 4 Schooners; 1 Cutter: 1 Steamboat, and several smaller craft, most of which are in a miserable condition. There are 268 Navy officers, and 152 Supernumeraries, being enough for ten times the present naval force; 2,266 seamen, and 494 marines. In all, 3,180.
We had a quarantine of a week when we first visited Lisbon, during which time we had an almost unbroken tempest of wind and rain. The Tagus, whose sands, according to the ancient poets were covered with gold, is a broad and noble river, and the ebb and flow of the tide give it a bold and sweeping current. The city of Lisbon is built upon seven large hills and numerous smaller ones, extending sev. eral miles along the banks of the Tagus, rising by a steep ascent, and separated here and there by deep ravines, giving to the city the appearance of a number of distinct, romantic towns or villages. If we may believe those wise and veracious worthies, the antiquaries, Lisbon was founded in the year of the world 1935, or 278 years after the deluge, by Elisha, a great-grandson of Noah, and was afterwards rebuilt by Ulysses, who named it Ulyssipona, which is still its Latin name.
It was a municipal town under the Romans, and after their expulsion was held by the nations which successively overran the Peninsula.
Near the close of the last century, Lisbon contained 38,000 houses; 240,000 inhabitants; 37 parishes; numerous chapels ; 32 convents of monks, and 18 of nuns. The streets which ascend from the river are steeper than I have ever seen elsewhere, except at Malta and Quebec, and the summits of the hills are crowned with showy palaces, convents, or other public buildings. The houses, like those in most of the other cities of Southern Europe, are built of stone and stuccoed, and whitewashed or painted some light color, and are from two to six stories high. The lower part of the city which was destroyed and overflowed during the memorable earthquake in 1755, has been since rebuilt in the style of modern cities, with broad streets and side-walks. In this section are found the custom-house and other vast and massive public buildings, which would do credit to any nation in the world. The older and more elevated portions of the city have the narrow streets and lanes which were planned for foot passengers and beasts of burden alone, before wheel carriages were used as a common means of conveyance. This style of building which has long prevailed in warm countries, has the advantage of excluding in a great degree, the rays of the sun as well from the streets as from the walls of the houses, thus materially lessening the oppressive heat of summer.
Travellers have commonly spoken of Lisbon as a very filthy place, and this is indeed true of most of the narrow streets and lanes of the older part of the city, but by the construction of sewers and other improvements, many sections are now as cleanly as other large cities where immens numbers of men and domestic animals are densely crowde together. The principal, or at least the most numerous class of public scavengers are the dogs, which are constantly prowling and yelping about the city in troops in search of food. A French writer in the last century stated, that the number of these animals in the streets of Lisbon who had no masters was 80,000. Be this as it may, however, the most devout Mussulman, with all his religious veneration for the canine race, could hardly wish for a greater assemblage of half-starved, wolfish-looking objects in the form of
“Mongrel, puppy, whelp, and hound, and cur of low degree," than are everywhere to be met with in the streets of Lisbon.
The ruins of the earthquake, which occurred at Lisbon November 1st, 1755, are still visible there in every direction. A sound like thunder was heard under-ground, and immediately afterwards a violent shock threw down most of the city. In about six minutes, 60,000 persons perished. The sea at first retired and laid the bar dry, and then rolled in, rising fifty feet or more above its ordinary level. The Mountains of Cintra and others of great size were violently shaken to their very foundations, and the summits of some of them were split and rent in a most astonishing manner. A great crowd of people had collected on a new and massive marble quay, that thus they might be beyond the reach of the falling ruins, when suddenly the quay sunk down with all the people on it, together with a great number of boats and small vessels anchored near it, and all full of people, were swallowed up as in a whirlpool. Not one of the dead bodies, nor a fragment of these wrecks ever floated to the surface, and the water where the quay stood is now a hundred fathoms deep. Though the effects of this earthquake were most powerful in Spain, Portugal, and the North of Africa, they were still perceived the same day, not only over most of Europe, but even in the West Indies.
A seaport named St. Ubes, about twenty miles south of Lisbon was swallowed up, as was also a town in Morocco, with its inhabitants, to the number of eight or ten thousand, and all their cattle, the earth closing again over them. Ships far off at sea were violently shaken and strained, as if they had struck a rock. A great wave swept over the coast of Spain, which is said to have been sixty feet high at Cadiz. The sea was raised many feet above high-water mark, and rushed violently on shore at Tangier, in Africa, at Funchal, in the island of Madeira, and at Kinsale, in Ireland.
At Lisbon, the royal family had but just escaped from the palace when it fell, and, throughout the ensuing winter, the whole population of Lisbon lived in huts and tents in the
The distress of the people was extreme, arising from the want of the necessaries of life, as also from the desolation caused by bands of robbers, who plundered all they could find, and then, to conceal their deeds, set fire to
such portions of the city as had escaped the ruin of the earthquake. There has, perhaps, never been a dispensation of Providence, which excited a more lively sympathy and called forth more efficient aid from other nations than this. The rents and fissures in some buildings, and the fallen and shattered walls of others; the remains of what was once the royal palace; and the ruins of a church, with its roof, its towers, and its turrets shaken down, while its lofty walls and arches still remain, all forcibly impress one with the power of those natural agents, which the Almighty sometimes commissions to destroy the life of man, and which are subject to Him, and to Him alone, “who looketh upon the earth and it trembleth ; who toucheth the hills and they smoke.”
The dress of the Portuguese bears a general resemblance to that of the Spanish. Cloaks, however, are less used than in Spain, and among the lower classes, the females, instead of the black Spanish mantilla, have a high, figured comb, with a handkerchief of white muslin, stiflly starched, thrown over it. There is no system of common education in Portugal,
but the government have one in contemplation. They now pay between $ 200,000 and $300,000 dollars a year, towards the support of the University of Coimbra, the School of the Nobles, and a few primary schools in Lisbon. The number of students in the School of the Nobles, is about 200, and they receive instruction in the branches which belong to a liberal education. There are several infant schools in Lisbon, in which about 3,000 children are taught.
The Public Library of Lisbon contains about 150,000 volumes, and a large collection of manuscripts, coins, and medals. The books are arranged with reference to the languages in which they are written, and the subjects of which they treat; and in each apartment of the library are tables for writing and study, and persons to hand instantly such books as are called for, all free of expense to the visiter. There is also a room neatly carpeted and furnished, for the use of ladies, who may wish to go there and read. The floors of two other apartments were covered to the depth of three or four feet, with manuscript copies of the trials and sentences of persons by the Inquisition, with all the evidence in each case written out in full. They occupied, each, from a few quires to a ream or more of paper; and having but recently been collected, they were yet to be examined, when,