Organization Change: Theory and Practice

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SAGE, 2002年6月14日 - 325 頁
Organizations are striving to succeed in an increasingly complex global, political, and economic environment. This book provides an overview of the theoretical and research foundation for our current understanding of organization change including the types of change organizations experience.

It reviews various models of organization change, including a new model developed by Burke-Litwin, and demonstrates how these models can be used to diagnose change issues in organizations. Separate chapters are devoted to the role of leaders in initiating and implementing change efforts and the more popular change interventions being implemented in organizations today. The concluding chapter discusses implications for further theory development, conducting research on organization change, and planning and managing change in organizations.

The book is appropriate for use in advanced courses in the areas of organizational psychology, industrial psychology, and organizational behaviour. In addition, it will be of interest to consultants in organizational change and development that want a better understanding of the field and an update on the current research in this area.

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內容

Rethinking Organization Change
1
The Paradox of Planned Organization Change
2
Making the Case for Organization Change
4
Changing Government Agencies
6
Changing Higher Education Institutions and Nonprofit Organizations
7
Summary
9
Personal Declarations and Points of View
10
The Theories of Choice
11
Organization Change Theory
132
Current Thinking Regarding Organization
139
Summary
141
Conceptual Models for Understanding Organization Change
143
What to Change
144
How to ChangeA Theoretical Framework
146
How to ChangePractice Frameworks
150
MiniTheories Related to Organization Change
156

Levels of Organization Change
12
How Organization Change Occurs
13
The Content and Process of Organization Change
14
The Organizational Model of Choice
15
Should Be DataBased and Measured
16
Planned Organization Change Is Complex
17
A Closing Request
18
A Brief History of Organization Change
19
Scientific Management
20
The Hawthorne Studies
23
Industrial Psychology
26
Survey Feedback
28
Sensitivity Training
30
Sociotechnical Systems
32
Organization Development
34
The Managerial Grid and OD
36
Coercion and Confrontation
38
Management Consulting
40
Summary
42
Theoretical Foundations of Organizations and Organization Change
43
Characteristics of Open Systems
45
Organization Change Is Systemic
49
Toward a Deeper Understanding of Organization Change
51
Capras Three Criteria for Understanding Life
53
Implications for Organizations and Organization Change
58
The Nature of Organization Change
63
Revolutionary Change
64
Evolutionary Change
67
Case Example
70
Case Example
72
The Tools for Assessment and Ratings
75
Data Summary of the Firms Partners
80
Conclusion
81
Summary
82
Levels of Organization Change Individual Group and Larger System
83
Change in Organizations at the Individual Level
84
Individual Responses to Organization Change
92
Change in Organizations at the Group Level
97
Group Responses to Organization Change
102
Change in Organizations at the LargerSystem Level
104
System Responses to Organization Change
111
Summary
114
Organization Change Research and Theory
121
More Recent Approaches to Research and Theory The Shift From Normal Science
127
The Organizational Change Research Theory of Porras and Colleagues
129
Organization Models
131
Group Emphasis
158
The LargerSystem Emphasis
161
Summary
164
Strategies for Effecting Change in Human Systems
168
Summary
172
Integrated Models for Understanding Organizations and for Leading and Managing Change
175
What Is an Organizational Model?
176
Why Use an Organizational Model?
177
Organization Models and Organization Change
179
Weisbords SixBox Model
180
The NadlerTushman Congruence Model
183
Tichys TPC Technical Political Cultural Framework
188
A Comparison of the Three Models
191
Summary
192
The BurkeLitwin Causal Model of Organization Performance and Change
195
The Model
198
Transformational and Transactional Dimensions
201
Support for the Models Validity
209
The Influence of the External Environment
210
The Transformational Factors
211
The Transactional Factors
212
Summary
215
Application of the BurkeLitwin Model
217
British Broadcasting Corporation BBC
226
Summary
238
Leading Organization Change
239
Does Leadership Matter?
240
On Defining Leadership
242
Phases of Organization Change and the Leaders Role
246
The Prelaunch Phase
247
The Launch Phase
257
Further Implementation
260
Sustaining the Change
266
Summary
270
Organization Change Epidemics Integration and Future Needs
273
The Tipping Point
274
Applying The Tipping Point Principles to Planned Organization Change
279
Changing the Organization
283
What We Need to Know
287
Priorities
293
Conclusion
295
Annotated Bibliography
297
References
303
Index
317
About the Author
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Originally educated as a social-organizational psychologist (Ph.D., University of TexaAustin), Dr. Burke is currently engaged in teaching, research, and consulting. He teaches leadership, organizational dynamics and theory, and organization change and consultation. His research focuses on multirater feedback, leadership, learning agility, and organization change.

Dr. Burke's consulting experience has been with a variety of organizations in business-industry, education, government, religious, medical systems, and professional services firms, including British Airways, SmithKline Beecham, National Westminster Bancorp, British Broadcasting Corporation, Business Consultants, Inc. of Japan (since 1972); Pricewaterhouse Coopers Consulting, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Dime Savings Bank, and Miller and Chevalier law firm. He formerly served as senior advisor to the strategy and organization change practice of IBM Global Business Services.

Prior to his move to Teachers College, Dr. Burke was professor of management and chair of the Department of Management at Clark University. Prior to the Clark assignment, Dr. Burke was an independent consultant from 1974 to 1976. For eight years he was a full-time professional with the NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science, where he was director for Executive Programs and director of the Center for Systems Development (1966-1974). For eight years beginning in 1967 he also served as the executive director of the Organization Development Network

Dr. Burke is a Fellow of the Academy of Management, the Association for Psychological Science, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He has served on the Board of Governors of the Academy of Management and the American Society for Training and Development, and he is a Diplomate in organizational and business consulting psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology. From 1979 to 1985 he was editor of Organizational Dynamics, and from 1986 to 1989 he started and served as editor of the Academy of Management Executive. Dr. Burke is the author of more than 150 articles and book chapters on organization development, training, change and organizational psychology, and conference planning; and author, co-author, editor, and co-editor of 19 books. His latest book published by Sage is Organization Change: Theory and Practice, 4th Ed. He designed and served as faculty director of the Columbia Business School executive program "Leading and Managing People" from 1988 to 1995. In 1989 he received the Public Service Medal from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in 1990 the Distinguished Contribution to Human Resource Development Award and in 1993 the Organization Development Professional Practice Area Award for Excellence - The Lippitt Memorial Award - from the American Society for Training and Development. Dr. Burke has also served on three committees for the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (1994-2012). August of 2003 he received the Distinguished Scholar-Practitioner Award from the Academy of Management, and in October of 2003, he was the recipient of the Organization Development Network’s Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2004 he was appointed Distinguished Scholar-in-Residence for the Management Consulting Division of the Academy of Management, and in 2005 and 2010 he received the Linkage Corporation’s Lifetime Achievement Award for leadership in the field of organization development. Also in 2005, he became the co-director of the Eisenhower Leadership Development Program, an MA in organizational psychology joint program between Teachers College and the United States Military Academy at West Point. Also in collaboration with the U.S. Army War College, Dr. Burke is responsible for a one-year fellowship program for U.S. Army Colonels. In April, 2007, he received the Distinguised Lifetime Contribution to Practice Award from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and in 2011 the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Best Practice Institute. His most recent book is the 3rd edition of

Organization Development: A Process of Learning and Changing (2015; Pearson Education) now co-authored with Debra Noumair. On May 19, 2016, Dr.Burke was given The Outstanding Civilian Service Medal Award from the Department of the Army for his work with the United States Military Academy at West Point.

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