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Filley, Chauncey I., 178.
Flagler, H. M., 66.
Fogg, William P., 66.
Foraker, James B., at Convention of
1884, 122–124; close relations re-
sulting from Convention of 1884
between Mr. Hanna and, 124–126;
election as Governor of Ohio, 125–
126; break with Mr. Hanna, and
causes, 128–137; effect on Ohio
politics of enmity between Mr.
Hanna and, 138–139; growing ri-
valry of McKinley and, 141–142;
defeat of, for Governor in 1889, 152–
153; the patent ballot-box incident,
153; defeat of, for Senator by
Sherman in 1891, 158—162; obtains
victory over Mr. Hanna and
Governor McKinley in 1895, 176–
177; supports McKinley's candi-
dacy for the nomination for Presi-
dent in 1896, 182; places Mc-
Kinley's name before Convention of
1896, 191; honor of inserting gold
clause in Republican platform of
1896 claimed by, 193; on Com-
mittee on Resolutions at St. Louis,
195–196; pamphlet on “The Gold
Plank” by, cited, 202–203; ques-
tionable attitude of, in Mr. Hanna's
first Senatorial campaign, 254; as
a debater in the Senate, 282; takes
part in state election of 1901, 357;
clever work of, in forcing Mr. Hanna
into a corner on Roosevelt issue
(1903), 423–425; tries to embroil
relations between Roosevelt and
Hanna in 1903, 436; on death of
Mr. Hanna, pronounces the most
discriminating appreciation of his
career and personality, 457-458.
Ford, George H., quoted, 38.
Ford, Henry Jones, work by, quoted, 476.
Foster, Charles, 118, 132, 138, 165;
death of, 452.
Frazee, John N., description of Lieu-
tenant Hanna by, 46.
Frick, H. C., 170.
Frye, Senator, on Mr. Hanna as a
stump speaker, 248; with Mr.
Hanna during speaking tour in
Northwest (1900), 334–335; con-
verted to the Panama route for
Isthmian canal by Mr. Hanna's
speech in Senate, 384.

Gage, Lyman G., 388.
Gallinger, Senator, 284.

Gardner, George W., 118, 121, 126.
Garfield, James A., campaign of 1880,
110, 116–117; succeeded by Mc-
Kinley on Ways and Means Com-
mittee, 142; helped financially by
National Committee, 160.
Garfield, James R., mentioned in
connection with Mr. Hanna's first
Senatorial campaign and the charges
of attempted bribery, 253, 258, 260,
290; testifies to Mr. Hanna's
freedom from corrupt methods, 264;
helps to maintain friendly relations
between Hanna and Roosevelt,
437-438.
Garretson, Hiram, 32, 36, 43.
Gary, James A., appointed Postmaster-
General by McKinley, 230.
Gathmann Torpedo, the 280–281.
Gerrard, Jephtha A., 258–259.
Gessner, Francis B., newspaper corre-
spondent, 267.
Gleason, Major, description of Lieuten-
ant Hanna by, 46.
Globe Ship Building Company, 61.
Goebel, Judge, 253.
Gold plank in St. Louis platform
(1896), 192–199.
Gold standard, establishment of, by
the 56th Congress, 282.
Gompers, Samuel, 389, 391, 392.
Gowdy, John K., 181.
Grant, President, and James A. Gar-
field, 116–117.
Grasselli, C. A., 456. -
Gridiron Club dinner, and tribute
paid to Mr. Hanna at, 369–371.
Griffith, John E., 257, 258.
Griscom, Clement, 429.
Grosvenor, Charles H., 254; interview
with, on Roosevelt's chances in
1904, 423.

Hahn, William M., 160, 214.

Hale, Rev. Edward Everett, memorial
address on Mr. Hanna delivered by,
456.

Hale, Senator, 284, 429.

Hanna, Benjamin, grandfather of
M. A. Hanna, 2–5, 8–11, 15, 16; the
eleven children of, 4–5; financial
ruin and death of, 31–32.

Hanna, Daniel Rhodes, son of M. A.
Hanna, 49, 429, 451; a member of
M. A. Hanna & Co., 60; chosen a
member of Conciliation and Arbi-
tration Committee of Civic Federa-
tion, 389–390.

Hanna, Elizabeth, ancestor of M. A.
Hanna, 2.
Hanna, H. Melville, younger brother
of M. A. Hanna, 13, 14, 15, 34, 43;
service in navy during Civil War, 44;
buys M. A. Hanna's refinery and sells
out to Standard Oil Company, 51;
introduction of steel vessels on the
Great Lakes by, 61; quoted, 100;
on McKinley's tact and attractive
personality, 175—176; with M. A.
Hanna in his last illness, 454.
Hanna, James B., nephew of M. A.
Hanna, 88.
Hanna, Joshua, uncle of M. A. Hanna,
5, 10–11, 12, 32.
Hanna, Kersey, uncle of M. A. Hanna,
3 n., 4, 10, 14, 18.
Hanna, L. G., manager of Cleveland
Opera House, 73.
Hanna, Leonard, father of M. A.
Hanna, 5–6, 11, 17, 18; marriage
to Samantha Converse, 6; takes
prominent part in temperance and
political movements in Ohio, 13–15;
removal from New Lisbon to Cleve-
land, 32; illness and death of, 42.
Hanna, Leonard C., brother of M. A.
Hanna, 41; a member of Rhodes &
Co., 60 n.; quoted, 85, 101, 102;
becomes head of M. A. Hanna & Co.
on withdrawal of M. A. Hanna, 173–
174.
Hanna, Levi, uncle of M. A. Hanna,
3 n., 11.
Hanna, Marcus Alonzo, birth of (Sept.
24, 1837), 1, 7; ancestry, 2–7;
boyhood home and school life, 17 ff.;
religious trend of father and mother,
18; personal appearance, 19; activ-
ities in debating club and in mimic
warfare, 23–27; as a leader among
boys, 27, 38–39; removal with
parents to Cleveland, 32; engage-
ment to Mary Ann McLain, 32–33;
schooldays in Cleveland and at
Western Reserve College, 36–39;
attitude toward book education and
education of real life, 39; entrance
into business of Hanna, Garretson
& Co. (1857), 39–41; roustabout,
purser, and commercial traveller,
40–41; active social life led by, 41–
42; effect on, of death of father
in 1862, 42–43; a member of firm of
Robert Hanna & Co., 43–44; in the
Civil War, 44–46; descriptions of,
as a soldier, 46; love affair with and
National Committee by Benjamin
Harrison but declines in order to
leave hands free to work for Mc-
Kinley (1891), 165; great help
given to McKinley during latter's
financial ruin, 170; importance of
McKinley's brilliant reelection in
1893 appreciated by and made full
use of, 171; decision of, to with-
draw from direction of M. A. Hanna
& Co. to give time to politics, and
reasons for decision, 172–174; rents
house in Georgia to help McKinley's
cause in the South, 175–176:
management of McKinley's cam-
paign for the nomination in 1896,
175 fs. ; cost of McKinley's cam-
paign for nomination in 1896
paid by, 183–184; strict objections
of, to illegitimate use of money by
his lieutenants, 184–185; reasons
traced for success of his ambition
for McKinley, 188–189; attitude of,
favorable to a gold standard, 194;
letter to A. K. McClure concerning
St. Louis Convention, 198–199;
recognition of services of, and speech
by, on nomination of McKinley,
205; made Chairman of National
Committee, 206; ovation to and
speeches by, on return to Cleveland,
207–208; masterly generalship dis-
played by, in managing campaign of
1896, 209–227; amount of money
raised by, for election expenses,
218–221 ; defence of his methods of
meeting campaign expenses, 221-
223; made the victim of malignant
personal attacks, 223–225; popular
approval of and interest in, after
McKinley's triumph, 228; declines
Cabinet position (Postmaster-Gen-
eralship) offered by McKinley,
229–230; reasons, 230–231 ; ambi-
tion to become Senator, 231-232; his-
tory of appointment of, to Sherman's
seat in Senate, 232–241; reason for
desirability of seeking election to
Senate, to preserve personal prestige,
242; story of confirmation of his
title to Senatorship by the people
and Legislature, 242–271 ; first
stump speaking by, 243–247; bri-
bery charge against, 259–263; re-
jection of corrupt methods by,
263–264; speech to supporters in the
Legislature, 266; letter to David K.
Watson concerning attack on Stand-

marriage to Miss C. Augusta
Rhodes, 47–48; vicissitudes of early
married life, 48–50; becomes a
member of firm of Rhodes & Co., 50;
refinery previously owned by, sold
to Standard Oil Company, 51;
speculation on effects on career of,
had he joined the Rockefellers, 51–52;
energies put into Rhodes & Co. make
him its leading member, 52–53;
success of Rhodes & Co. and M. A
Hanna & Co. due to nature of
management initiated by, 63–64;
business ventures outside of his
special line, 65 f.; experiences as
proprietor of the Cleveland Herald,
66–70; false impression of person-
ality of, resulting from contest
with the Leader, 68; the answer
to accusation of being a boss, 70;
organization of Union National
Bank by, 70–72; Cleveland Opera
House purchased and managed
under direction of, 72–75; acquaint-
ance among actors, 75; street
railway affiliations of, 76–83; atti-
tude toward corruption in Cleve-
land politics, 80–83; relation be-
tween his employees and, 84 f.;
street railway men and, 86–89; ex-
periences with labor difficulties, 89–
95; generally broad and humane
treatment of employees by, 95;
characteristics of, in business, 96 f.;
his initiative, 96–97; capacity for
hard work, 97–98; success as a
salesman, 98; aptitude for me-
chanics, 98–99; control of business
campaigns by, 99–101; mixture of
balance and prudence in business
policy of, 101–103; success as an
organizer, 103; absolute integrity
the keystone of his business struc-
ture, 103–104; a shrewd judge of
people, 105–106; manner in dealing
with business associates, 106–107;
can be summed up as a business
man who carried over into the period
of industrial expansion the best
characteristics of the pioneer, 107–
108, 465 f.; mistake of viewing
him as essentially a money-maker,
108–109; beginnings as a politician,
110; interest in politics antedated
street railway connection, 112–113;
partriotic motives at the base of his
interest in political matters, 113–
114; early opposition to and subse-

quent coöperation with the bosses,
114-115; essential features of creed
of, regarding politics, 115; the
Garfield campaign in 1880, 116–117;
broadening of political interests after
Garfield's election, 117–118; mem-
ber of state Republican committee,
118; the experimental period of his
political career, 118–119; plunge
into national politics with election
as delegate to National Convention
of 1884, 120 f.; close relations
between James B. Foraker and, 124–
126; activities in electing Foraker
Governor and in Cleveland munici-
pal politics, 126-127; backed by
important business men rather than
professional politicians, 127; rup-
ture between Foraker and, and
causes, 128–137; constant support
of John Sherman for the Presidency,
129-137; appointed director of
Union Pacific R. R., 131 ; at the
National Convention of 1888, 133–
136; permanent hostility of Foraker
and, and effect on Mr. Hanna's
career and on Ohio politics, 138–139;
McKinley definitely replaces Sher-
man in mind of, as a Presidential
possibility, 140–141 ; increased in-
terest in national politics due to the
tariff issue, 143; as a campaign
fund contributor and successful
solicitor of campaign contributions,
145–147; his assistance of Mc-
Kinley and Kimberly in money ways,
146–147; visit to Washington in
1889 to help McKinley's fight for
Speakership, 150; open hostility
to Foraker in latter's candidacy for
Governorship in 1889, 152–153;
open dislike and lack of recognition
of, by President Harrison, 153–154;
controversy with Congressman
Burton over the Cleveland post-
mastership 154; growing friend-
ship with Sherman, McKinley, and
Butterworth, 154; letters of Butter-
worth to, 154–156; McKinley's
cautious letters to, 156–158; success-
ful efforts by, to elect McKinley as
Governor and Sherman as Senator
(1891), 158—162; grateful letter
from Sherman to, but total neglect
of mention of in Sherman's “Rem-
iniscences,” 162–163; work for
McKinley at Minneapolis in 1891,
165-166; offered Treasurership of

ard Oil Co. by, discussed, 266–271;
first three years of, in the Senate
viewed as a transition period,
272 ff.; handicapped by prominence
as a friend of the President and as
Chairman of the National Com-
mittee, 273; work in connection
with the Dingley Law, 275–276;
committees on which he served,
276; attitude on public questions
as indicated by his votes, 277;
attitude on the Spanish War, 278–
279; as an Imperialist, 279–280;
his ship-subsidy bill, 280, 344 f.;
interest in the Gathmann Torpedo,
280–281; votes against seating M.
S. Quay, 283; takes active part in
armor-plate debate, 286–288; Sen-
ator Pettigrew's attack on, and
Mr. Hanna's defence, 288–290;
part taken by, in Ohio politics in
1898 and 1899, 291–296; skill dis-
played by, in distribution of patron-
age, 297–298; rules laid down by,
on appointments, 299–301 ; prepa-
rations of, for Convention of 1900,
302 f.; the trust issue, 305-307;
opposes Roosevelt's nomination for
Vice-President, 310; forced to ac-
quiesce in the nomination of Roose-
velt for Vice-President, 315–317;
McKinley's hesitation in selecting
Mr. Hanna to manage campaign of
1900, 320–321 ; eminent skill dis-
played by, in conducting the cam-
paign, on receiving appointment to
Chairmanship of National Com-
mittee, 321–322; irritation over
certain attitudes taken by McKinley,
329–330; his stump-speaking tour
in the Northwest, 331–340; resent-
ment of, over McKinley's attempted
interference, 333–334; overwhelm-
ing success of tour, 340; prestige
of, after McKinley's reëlection,
342–344; ship-subsidy legislation
urged by, 344–354; failure of, to
control his party's politics in Cleve-
land, 355; at Buffalo at time of the
President's assassination, 358-360;
exchanges pledges as to mutual
behavior with Roosevelt, on death
of McKinley, 360–362; comparisons
and contrasts drawn between Mc-
Kinley and, 363–368; change in
public sentiment toward, following
McKinley's death, 369; the Gridiron
Club dinner and address, 369-371 ;

continued influence of, at the White
House and friendship with Roose-
velt, 371-372; takes part in debates
on Department of Commerce and
Labor, Chinese Exclusion Act, Penn-
sylvania R. R. station in Washing-
ton, Cuban reciprocity, etc., 374–
375; position in the government
in 1901–1902 analogous to that of a
German Imperial Chancellor, 375–
376; great importance of work of, in
behalf of Panama Canal, 376 f.;
becomes leader in the Senate of pro-
Panama route party, 380; exhaus-
tive investigation by, of advantages
and disadvantages of different canal
routes, 381–382; speech of, in behalf
of Panama route (June 5 and 6,
1902), 382–384; interest aroused in
capital and labor problem, 386 f.;
publicly identifies himself with
work of National Civic Federation,
391-392; chairman of Industrial
Department, Civic Federation, 391–
392; work of, to settle anthracite
coal miners' strike of 1902, 393–400;
settlement of various labor disputes
by, 401–402; description of official life
of, at Washington, 412–413 ; proba-
bility of election to Presidency, in case
McKinley had lived, 413; numerous
advocates of Mr. Hanna's nomina-
tion in 1904, 414–415, 416–417,420;
effect on relations with Roosevelt of
efforts of friends in behalf of nomina-
tion, 422–423; cornered on Roose-
velt nomination question by the
Foraker faction, 423–425; indorse-
ment of, by Ohio state convention
of 1903, 429; celebration by, of
marriage of his daughter Ruth, 429–
430; efforts put forth by, in state
election of 1903, 430–433; reëlec-
tion by a large majority in 1903,
433; letters of congratulation to,
from widespread sources, 434; re-
newed efforts by supporters to boom
him for the Presidency, 435; sup-
posed motives of, for not coming
out decisively for Roosevelt's re-
nomination, 442–444; question if
he could have been persuaded to
accept nomination had health per-
mitted, 444–446; personal habits
relative to eating, smoking, and
exercise, 447–448; premonitions of
physical breakdown in 1903, 449–
450; visit to Europe, 450; last
Hartz, Augustus F., 73–74.
Hawley, Senator, 284.
Hay, John, 170; letter by, concerning
Mr. Hanna, 228.
Hayes, Rutherford B., 93.
Hayward, W. H., 45.
Hearst, William R., malignant attacks
on Mr. Hanna by yellow journals
of, 224.
Heath, Perry, 214.
Hepburn Bill relating to proposed
Nicaraguan Canal, 379–380.
Herald, the Cleveland, Mr. Hanna's
experience as publisher of, 66–70;
use of, by Mr. Hanna, in the Garfield
campaign, 117.
Herrick, Myron T., 132, 192, 456;
McKinley aided by, when financially
ruined, 170; at St. Louis Conven-
tion, 196–198; with Mr Hanna in
Buffalo at time of President Mc-
Kinley's death, 360; interest of, in
Panama Canal route, 381; nomina-
tion of, for Governor in 1903, 428–
429; great majority by which elected
Governor, 433–434.
Hill, James J., reminiscence of Mr.
Hanna by, 105; introduces Mr.
Hanna in Wall Street in campaign of
1896, 219.
Hitchcock, Henry V., 38.
Hitchcock, John F., 38.
Hitchcock, President of Western Re-
serve College, 37.
Hoar, George F., 284; letter to Mr.
Hanna from, 431–432.
Hobart, Garret A., 180, 191—192.
Hollenbeck, H. H., 260.
Hord, A. C., 120.
Hough, A. B., 98, 207, 456, 459.
Hoyt, James H., 170, 176.
Hubbell, Mr. and Mrs. Henry S.,
34.
Hughes, Gideon, 2.
Hunter, Frank, 88.
Huntington, John, 112.

public utterance, his address to the
Legislature on being reëlected to
Senate, 451–452; depressed by
death of Mr. Foster and ex-Governor
Bushnell, 452; forced to take to
his bed by attack of typhoid fever,
453; last exchange of notes with
President Roosevelt, 453–454; death
of (Feb. 15, 1904), 455; memorial
and funeral services, 455-456;
honest, fair, and discriminating
appreciation of career and personal-
ity of, pronounced by Senator
Foraker, 457–458; further descrip-
tion of personal life and character-
istics of, 458–464; to be regarded
in the final summing-up as the em-
bodiment of the pioneer spirit,
whose conception of the business
of the government was to further
the interests of individuals, 465–
471; analysis in this light of his
business and political career, 471–
477; his crowning distinction his
spirit of fair play, his constancy to a
standard which the average Ameri-
can attains only in his better
moments, 478; durability of the
value inherent in his example and
in his life, 479.
Hanna, Robert, great-grandfather of
M. A. Hanna, 2–3, 4.
Hanna, Robert, uncle of M. A. Hanna,
3 n., 5, 11 ; removal from New
Lisbon to Cleveland, 32; mentioned,
43, 50.
Hanna, Ruth, daughter of M. A.
Hanna, 34; wedding of, 423, 429–430.
Hanna, Thomas, ancestor of M. A.
Hanna, 2.
Hanna, Thomas B., uncle of M. A.
Hanna, 3 n., 11.
Hanna & Co., M. A., succeeds Rhodes
& Co., 60 m.
Hanna-Frye Subsidy Bill, 280, 345,
347; failure of, 353–354.
Hanna, Garretson & Co., firm of, 36,
39–40, 43.
Harbaugh, Porter, 6.
Harrison, Benjamin, election of, as
President by small margin, 149–
150; dislike and lack of recognition
of Mr. Hanna by, 153–154; nomina-
tion and defeat of, in 1891–92, 164–
166; a possible rival of McKinley's
in 1896, 177–178, 179, 180; weaken-
ing of administration by mistakes in
selections for office, 297.

Imperialism, acceptance of doctrine of,
by McKinley and Hanna, 279-280.

Industrial Department, National Civic
Federation, Mr. Hanna as chairman
of, 391 ff.; work of, in anthracite
coal strike and other labor disputes,
393-402; ultimate non-success of, as
an agency for settling labor troubles,
407.

Initiative, Mr. Hanna's salient charac-
teristic of, 96–97.

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