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ABSOLUTE NATURE OF GOVERNMENT, 236 to 309.
in America, 258 to 259.
in England, 243 to 258.
ACTS IN DEROGATION OF NATURAL RIGHTS, WHEN WOID.
236 to 309.
ACTS DIRECTORY, 782 to 796.
ACTS, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE, 913 to 934.
AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE ACTS, 771 to 813.
affirmative acts creating a franchise, 790.
directing a thing to be done in a given time, 782.
do not take away a custom, 796.
effect upon actions at common law, 771.
effect upon the common law, 771.
giving a right, and silent as to remedy, 774.
illustrations of rules relating to, 772 to 774.
introductive of a new law, 778.
nature of 771.
requiring acts to be done by public officers, 795.
when directory, 782 to 795.

when cumulative as to remedy, 797 to 813.
AFORESAID,

how construed, 731.
ALABAMA.

bill of rights, 215 to 219.

legislature of 219 to 222.
AND

when construed, “or,” 658.

how construed generally, 731.
ANGLO SAXON ASSEMBLIES, 25.

authority of Witans, 23.

code of laws, 23.

kings, 23.

legislation, 23, 24.

mode of enacting laws, 23.

optimates, 25.

Witans, authority of 23.

ARCHONS.
their authority, 11.
ARKANSAS.
bill of rights, 230 to 233.
legislature of 233 to 235.
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY, 12.
ATHENS.
assembly of, 10.
government of, 9.
senate, 10, 12.
ATTAINDER BILLS.
Definition of 366.
distinction between them and bills of pains and penalties, 366.
include both, 366.
AUTHENTIC INTERPRETATION, 603, 625.

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BANKRUPT LAWS.
power of congress over, 351.
not exclusive in congress, 351.
right of state not taken away until congress exerts the power, 351.
repeal of congressional act does not confer the right on states, 351.
when congressional act takes effect power of state suspended, 352.
BILLS OF CREDIT.
constitutional restrictions upon, 377 to 381.
definition of 377 to 379.
nature of 377 to 379.
must issue on faith of state, 378.
must be designed to circulate as money, 378.
persons issuing must have power to bind the state, 378.
states cannot issue them, 380.
states may grant acts of corporation for attainment of objects of so-
ciety, 380.
state bank bills not bills of credit, 381.
BILLS APPROPRIATING PUBLIC PROPERTY OR MONEY TO
PRIVATE USE, 418 to 449.
constitutionality of such acts. 417 to 465.
see two-third bills.
BLACKSTONE, WM. *
view of sovereignty and power of parliament, 243.
BURKE.
view of natural rights, 256.
BURLAMAQUI.
view of sovereignty, 237.

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CARTHAGENIAN GOVERNMENT, 15.
character of 17.
senate and assembly, 17.
senate, 15.
senate's powers, 16.
suffetees and magistrates, 15.
tribunal of the hundreds, 16.
CHRISTIAN.
view of authority of parliament, 243.
CLOSE INTERPRETATION.
nature of, 603
CLOSE CONSTRUCTION, 604, 610.
COMMERCE.
definition of under constitution, 326.
includes traffic, 326.
includes navigation, 326.
what is meant by “among the several states,” 328.
whether it extends to health and inspection laws, 331.
what acts concerning commerce are within federal constitution, 335
to 347.
what acts not within it, 347 to 351.
COMPREHENSIVE CONSTRUCTION.
definition of, 604.
CONSEQUENCES.
when regarded in construction, 693 to 697.
CONNECTICUT.
association of inhabitants, 82.
bill of rights, 136 to 139.
constitution of 83, 84, 85, 86, 99.
first general election of colony, 95.
first settlement of, 81.
foundation of colony, 80.
general convention of 83.
general court of, 93.
grant to colony, 82.
history of 90.
laws of colony, 94 to 96.
laws how enacted, 89, 100, 101.
legislature of, 139, 140.
political power of 90.
quo warranto against, 97, 98.
CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND, 40.
CONSTITUTION OF UNITED STATES.
to what applicable, 310.

CONSTITUTION OF UNITED STATES-continued.
5th amendment to what applicable, 310.
CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTIONS.
upon legislative power, 417 to 578.
upon taxing power, 321 to 326.
CONSTITUTIONALITY OF LAWS.
creating corporations, 449 to 466.
ex posto facto laws, 366 to 375.
eminent domain, 466 to 500.
granting public property for private or local purposes, 417 to 449.
health and inspection laws, 331.
impairing obligation of contracts, 382 to 416.
judicial acts of legislation, 500 to 530.
retrospective laws, 530 to 550.
statutes of limitation, 406 to 408.
two-third bills, 417 to 466.
statutes affecting right of trial by jury, 550 to 569.
CONSTRUCTION.
– according to ordinary signification, 651.
– according to subject matter, 631,654, 658.
affirmative and negative statutes, 771 to 813.
ambiguous terms, 631.
an exception, 712.
—according to intent of legislature, 649, 679,666,671.
—conformable to general usage, 629.
coupling words, 657.
deeds and wills, 646 to 660.
delegating authority, 713.
derived from civil law, 612.
derived from the reason of the law, 634.
derived from natural import of words, 661.
-difference from interpretation, 600, 603.
doubtful meaning of words, 710.
-equitable construction, 814 to 838.
equitable construction of penal acts, 839 to 854.
equivocal terms, 633.
expressions susceptible of different meanings, 631, 673.
– not to elude the force of an act, 671.
– not to destroy an act, 710.
nature of, 600.
penal statutes, 854 to 878.
permissive words, 728, 910.
power of Congress over commerce, 326 to 351.
proviso, 712.
particular words, 681 to 729.
“complaint,” 686.
“defendant,” 687.

CONSTRUCTION.—continued.
“depending,” 733.
“final judgment,” 683, 684.
“high seas,” 719.
“may,” 724 to 729.
“maliciously and without justifiable cause,” 687.
“law of the land,” 722.
“legal settlement,” 721.
“party,” 681.
“person,” 688.
“plaintiff,” 682.
“saving clause,” 711.
“supersede,” 683.
“tea and loaf-sugar,” 715, 716.
“trial,” 685.
—public and private acts, 913 to 934.
relative words to antecedent, 656.
—remedial acts, 692.
—retrospective acts, 679.
revenue laws, 714 to 721.
similar expressions in the same or different acts, 664 to 666.
statutes in pari materia, 647, 751, 770.
sense when clear, 663.
technical terms, 630, 679.
terms of art, 630.
things favorable, 640.
to produce some effect, 631, 632.
things odious, 640.
when it leads to false consequences, 663.
when the words are plain, 627.
when the words are obscure, 628.
CONTEMPORANEOUS CONSTRUCTION, 659, 739 to 750.
influence of 739.
nature of 739.
reason for it, 740.
rule illustrated, 749.
CONTEMPORANEOUS EXPOSITION, 438 to 440.
CONTEMPORANEOUS PRACTICE.
influence on constitutional questions, 743.
how regarded by federal courts, 747.
how regarded in construction of English statute, 749.
how regarded in courts of law and equity, 750.
necessity of it in United States, 746.
nature of, 438, 741.
when judicial and legislative exposition have not the same weight,
744, 745.
when the rule restricted, 744.

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