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"anointed Pricft, continually officiates before
§ 7. Under the head of Allegory we may place Parables, of which we have so many instances in Scripture; and Fables, of which we may find fome very fine examples in Pagan antiquity. The best Orators have not fcrupled to make use of them. Thus when ALEXANDER, after his conqueft of Thebes, ordered the Athenians to deliver up to him eight, or, as others fay, ten of their Orators, DEMOSTHENES difsuaded them from complying with this demand by a Fable of the sheep, who gave up their guardian dogs to the wolves †.
STENNETT's Sermons, vol. i. page 161, 162.
† Ευθύς δ' ο Αλεξάνδρω εζήτει πεμπων των δημαγωγων δικα μεν, ως Ιδομενευς και Δουρίς ειρηκασιν' οκτώ δ', ως οι πλείςοι και δοκιμώταίοι των συγγραφέων -- Οτε και τον περι των προ βατων λόγον ο Δημοσθένης, ως τοῖς λύκοις τις κυνας εξεδωσε. PLUTARCHUS in Vit. DEMOSTHENIS.
The METONY MY confidered.
§ 1. The definition of a Metonymy. § 2. The change of name used four ways: (1) The cause put for the effect; (2) The effect put for the caufe; (3) The fubject put for the adjunct; (4) The adjunct put for the fubject. § 3. The Metalepsis, its definition. § 4. The use of the Metonymy.
$ 1. A Metonymy is a Trope, in which one
name is put for another, for which it may be allowed to ftand by reafon of fome relalation or coherence between them.
§. 2. This change of name is principally used thefe four ways:
(1) When the caufe is put for the effect. Thus MARS among the Heathens is used for war, CERES for corn, and BACCHUS for wine. So we bid a perfon read CICERO, that is, CICERO'S Works. So we fay, "look at this man's hand," that is, at his writing. Thus VIRGIL defcribes his fhepherd "as playing upon his reed," *From μετα and ονομας the paffing of one name into an
reed *,” that is, upon his pipe made of a reed. Inftances of this kind are not wanting in Scripture. Luke xvi. 29. They have Mofes and the Prophets; and Numb. xxxii. 23. " And be fure your sin will find you out," that is, the punishment of your sin..
(2) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the effect is put for the cause. Death is called pale, because it makes the countenance pale. Youth is called gay, because it makes perfons gay. And in like manner anger is called rash, because it makes men rafh. We have inftances of this fort in Scripture. Gen. xxv. 23. Two nations ss are in thy womb," that is, the fathers of two nations; Exod. xv. 2. "The LORD is become my falvation," that is, the author of my falvation; and 2 Kings iv. 40. There is death in the pot," that is, a poisonous herb that will cause death. (3) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the fubject is put for the adjunct, that is, for fome circumstance or appendage belonging to or depending upon the fubject. "He has a good heart," that is, he has courage, which is fuppofed to reside in the heart. CHRIST bid his Difciples, Matt. xxvi. 27. to " drink of the cup," that is, of the wine in the cup. It is faid, Mark i. 33. that "the city was gathered at the door," that is, all the inhabitants of the city. To thefe examples I might add fuch as follow: the Church, that is, Religion forbids it.
"He painted our
Sylveftem tenui mufam meditaris avena.
VIRGIL, Eclog. i. ver. 2.
King," that is, the picture of our King. "There's the Hero," that is, the bust of the Hero.
(4) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the adjunct is put for the fubject. Gen. xxxi. 53* Jacob fware by the fear of his father Ifaac,' that is, by the GOD whom ISAAC feared. 2 Kings xx. 1. " Set thine house in order," that is, the affairs of thine houfe. Phil. iii. 3. "For
we are the circumcision," that is, the perfons who are circumcifed. Such passages as follow belong alfo to this division of the Metonymy. "We slight living virtue," that is, men alive who are virtuous. "No age fhall be silent in thy praife," that is, men in no age fhall be si lent in thy praise. And what charming Metonymies have we of this kind, since the virtues and vices mentioned evidently denote the perfons in whom they are found, in that animated passage of CICERO, where, comparing the forces of the Roman republic with the profligate army of CATILINE, he fays, "On this side modesty is en"gaged, on that impudence; on this side chaf << tity, on that leudness; on this integrity, on "that deceit ; on this side piety, on that pro
faneness; on this side conftancy, on that fury; "on this side honour, on that baseness; on this "side moderation, on that ungoverned passion: "in a word, equity, temperance, fortitude, pru"dence, and all virtues contend against injuf "tice, luxury, effeminacy, rashness, and all manner of vices *"
Ex hac enim parte pudor pugnat, illinc petulantia; hinc pudicitia,.
3. Under the Metonymy we may consider the Metalepfis, of which it may frequently either more or lefs consift; but it has this circumstance peculiar to it, that it is very far-fetched and uncommonly multiplied, or, as Dr WARD defines it, "two or more Tropes, and those " of a different kind, are contained under one
word, fo that gradations or intervening fer.. come between the word that is expressed, a "the thing designed by it. The contefts, fay "the learned Profefsor, between SYLLA and "MARIUS proved very fatal to the Roman state. JULIUS CAESAR was then a young man. But SYLLA, obferving his afpiring genius, faid of him, In one CÆSAR there are many MARIUSES: *(nam Cæfari multos Marios ineffe, SUET. in Vit. c. t.) Now in this expression there is a Metalepfis, for the word Marius, by a Synecdoche or Antonomasia, is put for any ambitious or "turbulent perfon; and this again by a Metonymy of the caufe for the ill effects of fuch a "temper to the Public. So that SYLLA's mean"ing, divested of thefe Tropes, was, that CÆSAR "would prove the moft dangerous person to the "Roman ftate that ever was bred in it: which "afterwards proved true in the event †.” F 3
pudicitia, illinc ftuprum ; hinc fides, illinc fraudatio; hinc pietas, illinc fcelus; hinc conftantia, illinc furor; hinc honestas, illinc turpitudo; hinc continentia, illinc libido; denique æquitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes certant cum iniquitate, cum luxuria, cum ignavia, cum temeri tate, cum vitiis omnibus. CICER. in CATIL. Orat. ii. § 11.
4WARD's Oratory, vel ii. page 25, 26.