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Cicero gives us an instance of the Climax in the following passage. « Nor did he (Milo) o commit himself only to the people, but also « to the fenate; nor to the senate only, but to “ the public forces and arms; nor to these only, « but to his power, with whom the senate had
intrusted all the commonwealth, the flower c of Italy, and all the arms of the Roman peo“ ple *.”
« All the actions of men,” fays Archbishop TILLOTSON, " which are not natural, but proc ceed from deliberation and choice, have some66 thing of difficulty in them, when we begin to 66 practise them; because at first we are rude and « unexercised that way, but after we have prac« tised them a while, they become more easy; « and when they are easy, we begin to take plea« sure in them; and when they please us, we do " them frequently, and think we cannot repeat « them too often; and by frequency of acts, a 66 thing grows into an habit; and a confirmed « habit is a second kind of nature : and fo far o as any thing is natural, so far it is necessary,
το κλιμακωτον καλεμενον χημα-Εςι δε εδεν αλλ' η πλεοναζa. oa Avæsgoon. Osov, Yx Elmov flev tævle, oux tygafas de solo εγαψα μεν, εκ επρεσβεσα δε, εδ' επρεσβεσα μεν, ουκ επεισοδε. , Hermogen. de Ideis, lib. i.
* Neque vero fe populo folum, sed etiam fenatui commi. fit ; neque senatui modo, sed etiam publicis præsidiis & armis; neque his tantum, verum etiam ejus poteftati, cui senatus to. tam rempublicam, omnem Italiæ pubem, cuncta populi Ro. mani arma commiferat. Crcer. pro Milon. © 23.
« and we can hardly do otherwise ; nay, we do “ it many times when we do not think of it t."
$ 3. Inftances of this Figure occur in the sa-' cred Writings : Hofea ii. 21. ^ And it fhall come ss to pass in that day, I will hear, saith the LORD, ss the heavens, and they shall hear the earth, and g the earth shall hear the corn, and the wine, and s the oil, and they shall hear JEZREEL.SS So Rom. v. 3. $ Tribulation works patience, and * patience experience, and experience hope ; $$ and hope makes not ashamed.ss And Rom. viii, 29, 30. s For whom God did foreknow, w them also he did predestinate ; and whom he
did predestinate, them he also called ; and $$ whom he called, them he also justified; and ss whom he justified, them he also glorified.ss In like manner, Rom. X. 14, 15. ^ How then ss shall they call on him, on whom they have not ss believed ? and how shall they believe on him, ss of whom they have not heard ? and how shall ss they hear without a Preacher ? and how shall ss they preach, except they are sent ? * We may also recite for our purpose 2 Peter i. 5. $ And ss besides this giving all diligence, add to your so faith virtue ; and to virtue, knowledge; and ss to knowledge, temperance; and to temperance, ss patience; and to patience, godliness; and to
godliness, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly s kindness, charity.sk
§ 4. + TILLOTSON'S Sermons, vol. ii. p. 32. O&avo edition.
$ 4. But besides the Climax, which is regular and perfect, according to the definition we have given, there is what I may call a kind of freer Climax, that may be frequently observed in good Writers, in which the sense rises by degrees, though not according to the exact form and order in which we have described this Figure ; of which we may take the following instances.
Cicero somewhere says, “ It is a great fault 66 to lay a freeman of Rome in bonds, worse to « scourge him, and still worse to take away his " life, but what shall I say of crucifying him *?" And again; “ It is a miserable thing to be thrust s out of our possessions, more miserable to be “ thrust out of them by injustice: it is a bitrer " thing to be cheated by any person, more bitter “ to be cheated by a neighbour: it is a calamity s to be stript of our goods, more calainitous to “ be stript of them with disgrace: it is shameful “ to be beaten by an equal or a superior, but it « is more shameful to be thus used by an infe“ rior: it is dreadful to have ourselves and our « all delivered into the hands of another, but “ it is more dreadful if that person is our 6 enemy t."
There There appears evidently a Gradation in these celebrated lines of HORĄCE;
* Facinus eft vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, prope parricidium necare ; quid dicam in crucem collere?
+ Miserum eft exturbari fortunis omnibus ; miferius eft, injuria. Acerbum eft ab aliquo circumveniri ; acerbius à propinquo. Calamitofum eft bonis everti ; calamitofius cum
He who does rectitude pursue,
On the firm bafis of his soul
His citizens tumultuous rage
• What is every year,” says Mr Pope to Bishop ATTERBURY, “ of a wife man's life, but « a censure or critic on the past? Those, whose
dedecore. Indignum est à pari vinci, aut superiore; indig. nius ab inferiore, atque humiliore. Luctuofum eft tradi ał. teri cum bonis; luctuosius inimico. Cicer. pro Quint. $31.
* Justum & tenacem propofiti virum
Non vultus inftantis tyranni
Mente quarit folida ; neque auster,
Si fractus illabatur orbis
Horat. Od. lib, iï. od. 3.
« date is the shortest, live long enough to laugh « at one half of it: the boy despises the infant, “ the man the boy, the Philosopher both, and “ the Christian all 7."
I shall add to these examples a passage from Dr Akenside, of which it may be said,
That ev'ry step does higher rise,
Or rather infinitely beyond them.
The high-born soul Disdains to rest her heav'n-aspiring wing Beneath its native quarry. Tir’d of earth, And this diurnal scene, she springs aloft Thro' fields of air ; pursues the Aying storm; Rides on the volley'd lightning thro' the heav'ns : Or yok'd with whirlwinds, and the northern blaft, Sweeps the long tract of day. Then high she soars The blue profound; and, hov'ring round the sun, Beholds him pouring his redundant stream Of light; beholds his unrelenting sway Bend the reluctant planets to absolve The fated rounds of time. Thence far effus'd, She darts her swiftness up the long career Of devious comets ; thro' its burning signs Exulting measures the perennial wheel Of nature, and looks back on all the stars, Whose blended light, as with a milky zone, Invests the orient. Now amaz’d the views Th’empyreal waste, where happy spirits hold, Beyond this concave heav'n, their calm abode ;
+ Pope's Letters, vol. ii. page 97. O&avo edition.