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6 lies in its variety of colours; and hence it is, « in my opinion, that the ear is no less delighted “ with the opposition of contraries, than the eye “ is entertained when it sees two wrestlers con“ tending with one another *.”
I will only take the liberty of observing, that it appears to me not improbable that the powerful effect which we find some 'passages make upon our minds may arise from the Enantiosis; though every one that feels the effect, may not be sensible of the source from whence it fprings.
Does not every one who reads the following lines of Mr Pope admire them?
Who sees with equal eye, as God of all,
Is not a strong contrast remarkable in these verses? Heroes and sparrows, atoms and systems, bubbles and worlds being matched together produce a wonderful effect upon the mind; and, being represented as appearing upon a level be
* Præclarum Rhetorum sesundvor est Antithesis, Figura ad suave & illustre dicendi genus accommodatissima : eft enim contrariorum, vel certè diversorum, oppositio ; quo quidem delectationis aucupio mirificè capiuntur animi, & præclara quæque fiunt ex contrariis - Ex diversis coloribus decor in pictura efflorescit ; unde fit, credo, ut hac contrariorum op. pofitione auris delectetur, non fecus ac pascitur oculus, cum certantes videt athletas. CAUSSinus de Eloquentia, p. 418.
+ Pope's Elay on Man, epist. i. line 87.
fore the infinite Supreme fill us with exalted ideas of his immense greatness.
After Dr Young has wrought up our ideas of the creation to a kind of an unbounded magnificence, how striking is the picture he draws of inan as a mite, an infect, formed to behold and admire the immeasurably great and gloriolis theatre around him ? . · Why has the mighty Builder thrown aside
All measure in his work, stretch'd out his line
Dropt down that reas'ning mite, that infeet, man, • To crawl, and gaze, and wonder at the scene *?
How much by the way are the lines of our English Poet in the spirit of the Hebrew Psalmist ? Psalm viii. 3. » When I consider the heavens, the ss work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars ss which thou hast ordained ? What is man, that ss thou art mindful of him ? and the son of man, ss that thou visitelt hiin?is
" There can be no means," says the Author of the Elements of Criticism, “ more successfully w employed to sink and depress the mind, than « grandeur and sublinity. By the artful intro“ duction of an humbling object, the fall is great “ in proportion to the former elevation : of this « doctrine, SHAKESPEAR affords us a beautiful « illustration in the following passage ; $ 4
The • Young's Night Thoughts, Night is.
· The cloud-capt tow'rs, the gorgeous palaces, in
The solemn temples, the great globe itself, .
« The elevation of the mind in the former « part of this beautiful passage makes the fall “ great in proportion, when the most humbling 56 of all images is introduced, that of an ut6 ter dissolution of the earth and its inhabi« tants.
" A sentiment makes not the same impression si in a cool state, that it does when the mind is “ warmed; and a depressing or melancholy sen. "timent makes the strongest impression, when " it brings down the mind from its highest state, cs of elevation or chearfulness t."
* Tempeft, act 4. scene 4.
$.1. The Climax defined. $ 2. Instances of it from
DEMOSTHENES, CICERO, and TILLOTSON. $ 3. Examples from the. Sacred Writings. $ 4.
.... . A free
A free kind of Climax observed and defined, with various instances. $ 5. Observations upon this Figure.
§ 1. MLIMAX *, according to Mr Black
u Wall's definition, is, “ when the word c or expression, which ends the first member of « a period, begins the second, and so on; so that “ every member will inake a distinct sentence, “ taking its rise from the next foregoing, till “ the argument and period be beautifully finish« ed : or, in the terms of the schools, it is when " the word or expression, which was predicate « in the first member of a period, is subject in 66 the second, and so on, till the argument and « period be brought to a noble conclusion t."
§ 2. “ Gradation, says Cicero, is that Figure « in which the Orator proceeds not to the next « word in order, before he has first returned “ back to the word foregoing. For what hope " is there remaining of liberty, if whatever is “ their pleasure it is lawful for them to do; if 6 what is lawful for them to do they are able “ to do; if what they are able to do they dare “ to do; if what they dare to do they actually “ do; and if what they actually do is no way
offensive to you? So again; industry was the « fource of AFRICANUS's virtue, his virtue was
* From xayfuce şi a scale, or gradation.
« the source of his glory, and his glory was the “ source of his envy. And again; the empire « of Greece was first in the hands of the Athe“ nians, the Athenians were conquered by the c Spartans, the Spartans were subdued by the « Thebans, the Thebans were vanquished by the " Macedonians, who in a short time annexed to " the Grecian empire that of Asia, which they re• duced to their dominion by the power of the o sword *.”
“ There is also a Figure, says HERMOGENES, “ remarkable and well adapted for illustration, “ which is stiled a Climax. This Climax is no“ thing else than a copious repetition; as when “ Demosthenes says, Not only did I not speak " these things, but I did not write them; not “ only did I not write them, but I did not make “ them a part of my embassy; and not only did
I not make them a part of my embassy, but I < did not so much as advise them t."
Gradatio eft, in qua non ante ad confequens verbum descenditur, quàm ad superius conscensum est, hoc modo: pam quæ reliqua fpes manet libertatis, fi illis, & quod libet, licet ; & quod licet, poffunt; & quod poffunt, audent; & quod audent, faciunt; & quod faciunt, vobis molestum non eft : Item, Africano induftria virtutem, virtus gloriam, glo. ria æmulos comparavit. Item, imperium Græciæ fuit apud Athenienses, Atheniensium potiti sunt Spartiatæ, Spartiatas fuperavere Thebani, Thebani Macedones vicerunt, qui' ad imperium Græciæ brevi tempore adjunxerunt Afiam bello fuba&am. CICER. ad HERENNIUM, lib. iv. $ 25. + Εν των επιφανως καλλωπιζονίων εσι μετα εναργειας, και