« 上一頁繼續 »
♡ sovereign power bears along with him the « minds of his hearers +.”
- + Αποδειξιν ο Δημοσθενης υπερ των σεπολιτευμενων εισφερει τις δ' ην η καλα φυσιν χρησις αυλης ; “ εχ ημαρτεθε, ω τον « υπερ της των Ελληνων ελευθεριας αγωνα αραμενοι εχετε δε « οικειά τελο παραδειγματα εδε γαρ οι εν Μαραθωνι ημαρτον, ευδ' οι εν Σαλαμιν», εδ' οι εν Πλαταταις.” Αλλ' επειδη (καθαπερ ιμιευθεις εξαιφνης υπο θες, και οιονει φοιβοληπι@» γενομεν@-) τον των αρισεων της ΕλλαδG- ορκον εξεφωνησεν, “ 8κ εσυ «« οπως ήμαρτελε, 8 μα τες εν Μαραθωνι προκινδυνευσανίας,” φαινεται δι' ενώ τα ομοτικα χηματG», οπερ ευθαδε Απορροφης εγω καλω, τες μέν προγονες αποθεωσας, (οτι δει τες εΠως αποθανοντας ως Θεές ομνύναι σαρισανων) τοις δε κρινέσι το των εκει προκινδυνευσανίων ενδιθεις φρονημα, την δε της αποδειξεως φυσιν μεθεσακως εις υπερβαλλον υψώ» και παθών, και ξενων και υπερφυων ορκων αξιοπισιαν, και, αμα σαιωνειον τινα και αλεξιφαρμακον εις τας ψυχας των ακαονίων καθιεις λογον ως κεφιζομενες υπο των εγκωμιων μηδεν ελατ7ον τη μαχη τη προ- Φιλιππον, και επι τους καλα Μαραθωνα και Σαλαμινα νικηθηρους, παρισασθαι φρονείν. Oις σασι τες ακροαίας δια τα χρηματικο συναρπασας w xilo.' LONGINUS de Sublimitate, s 16. .
§ 1. The definition of a Periphrasis. § 2. Exam
ples of it in the first view from Livy, Cicero, and Tillotson. § 3. Instances of it in the second view from Statius, Virgil, Pindar, &c. $ 4. Examples of this Figure from Scripture. $ 5. A passage from Longinus upon the Periphrafis. $ 6. Its use, with remarks upon
$1. D Eriphrafis * is a Figure in which we
I use more words than what are absolutely necessary, and sometimes less plain words, . either to avoid some inconvenience and ill effect which might proceed from expressing ourselves in fewer or clearer words, or in order to give a ": variety and elegance to our discourses, and multiply the graces of our composition.
$ 2. We have a fine example of this Figure, in the first view of it, in the speech of VIBIUS? VIRIUS; who, in his exhortation to the senators of Capua to poison themselves in order to prevent
their . From wigipeas w, I speak in a circumlocution.
their falling alive into the hands of the Romans, particularly describes the miseries from which the draught of poison would deliver them, and disguises the horrors of death, or at least suffers it not to come into sight by an express inention of it. " Having feasted yourselves, says he, 6 with wine and food, the cup in which I will “ drink to you shall be handed round. That “ draught shall free your bodies from pain, “ your minds from reproaches, and your eyes “ and ears from the sight and hearing of all that “ bitter and ignominious usage, which you must “ endure by being made captive to your ene.' « mies *."
CICERO, by making use of a circumlocution, mentions nothing of the killing CLODIUS, though that event seems to be in his view: “ The fer“ vants of Milo, says he, for I do not speak
with a design to throw off the crime from them “ to others, but according as the event really “ happened, did that without the order, know“ ledge, or presence of their master, which every « one would be willing his own servants should « do in the like circumstances +."
• Satiatis vino ciboque poculum idem quod mihi datum fuerit, circumferetur. Ea potio corpus ab cruciatu, animum à contumeliis, oculos, aures à videndis audiendisque omnibus acerbis indignisque quæ manent victos vindicabit. Liv. lib. xxvi. Ś 13.
+ Fecerunt id fervi Milonis, dicam enim non derivandi diminis causa, sed ut factum eft, neque imperante, neque
May we not consider the following passage int. Archbishop TILLOTSON as a Periphrafis, in which, as one observes *, “Death is the principal thought us to which all the circunstances of the circumlo. cs cutions chiefly refer," and yet death is not so much as mentioned? “ When we consider that “ we have but a little while to be here, that we « are upon our journey to our heavenly country, “ where we fhall meet with all the delights we « can desire, it ought not to trouble us much « to endure storms and foul ways, and to want w many of thofe accommodations we might ex« pect at home. This is the common fate of « travellers; and we must take things as we find " them, and not look to have every thing just is to our mind. These difficulties and inconve" niencies will shortly be over, and after a few 6 days will be quite forgotten, and be to us as “ if they had never been. And when we are 6 safely landed in our own country, with what « pleasure shall we look back on those rough “ and boisterous seas we have escaped t?" .
§ 3. Nor are there wanting examples of the Periphrasis in the other view of it, I mean, as giving a variety and elegance to our discourses, and multiplying the graces of our compositions.
; . ^ The
faciente, neque præfente domino, quod fuos quifque fervos in tali re facere voluisset. Cicer. pro Milo: $ TO :
** SMITH's Translation of LONGINUS, p. 121. **TILLOTSON ON Phil, tii: 26." vol. i. p. 298. Ócavo edir.
The rising of the fun, or the morning, is thus magnificently defcribed by STATIUS: ."
Aurora, rising from her eastern bed, . Glanc'd on the skies, and night before her Aled;..
Then shook her locks, that dropp'd with filver dew,
.. VIRGIL, instead of saying it is near fun-fet, thus describes that season of the day,
See from the villas tops the smoke ascend,
PINDAR thus represents the moon at full :
The full-grown moon upon her throne of gold
* Et jam Mygdoniis elata cubilibus alto
Impulerat cælo gelidas Aurora tenebras,
Sole rubens: illi roseus per nabila seras
Lucifer exit equo; donec Pater igneus orbem
Statui Thebaid. lib. ii. ver. 134. * Et jam fumma procul villarum culmina fumant, ''. Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrą.
. VIRGIL, Eclog. i. ver, 83, 84,