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may be branded with something more than being finical and fantastical, though they may undoubt. edly merit such a censure, which we meet with in Mr Bernard Gilpin's Life, spoken by an High Sheriff at Oxford to the Students : “ Arriving, “ says he, at the mount of St Mary, in the stony “ stage where I now stand, I have brought you “ some fine biscuits carefully conseryed for the “ Chickens of the Church, the Sparrows of the

“ Spirit, and the sweet Swallows of Salvation.” - Şuch studied ornaments and pedantic conceits

are unworthy a place in our compositions ; and they should be carefully avoided by all, but efpe cially by such as have a lively fancy, and a turn for wit and humour. - Such labour'd nothings in fo ftrange a stile,

Amaze th' unlearn'd, and make the learned (mile to:

Let the peace of oblivion brood over such trash, and may they never be called into remembrance, except to excite our dislike, and double our caution.

$ 11. Let us avoid all filthy and impure Tropes. We should take heed that no Tropes we make use of, either as to found or fense, convey any idea that will not be agreeable to à chaste mind, or make any trespass upon delicacy. Let us borrow our Tropes from what we find most pleasing to the car, the eye, and the

in other • Pope's Esay on Griticism, line 326... )

other senses. « Tropes, says ARISTOTLE, are ¢ to be taken from those things which are agree€ able, whether in sound, or touch, or sight, or 65 any other sense *" CICERO will not admit that the commonwealth should be said to be emal culated by the death of AFRICANUS, nor that another person should be called the dung of the court ti QUINTILIAN by no means approves of the saying of an Orator, that such a person bad lanced the biles of the commonwealth I. “I cannot “ see Horace's genius, says the Archbishop of “ CAMBRAY, in this low piece of satire,

Profiripti regis Rupili pus atque venenum ; « and we should be apt to stare at the reading of " it, if we did not know the Author 1l.

LONGINUS's remarks and instructions upon this head are very juft: “ It by no means, fays

: "he, 4. * Τας δε μεταφοράς εντευθεν οισεον απο καλων, και τη φωνη, η on dur@pues, non ofer, nanan tini adteri. Aristot. Rhetor. lib. iii. cap. 2. $ 4.

+ Nolo morte cici Africani caftratam esse rempublicam ; nolo ftercus curiæ dici Glaucian : quamvis fit fimile, tamen eft in utroque deformis cogitatio fimilitudinis. Cicer. de Orat. lib. iii. $ 41.

# Non enim probem illud quoque veteris Oratoris : perse. cuifti reipublicæ vomicas. Quintil. lib. viii. cap. 6. $1. · || Letter to the French Academy. This line of Horace in plain English may be rendered the filth (the word fignifying the corrupt matter issuing from a sore) and the poison of the

proscribed King Rupilius ; Horace thereby intending the . railing or abusive tongue of Rupilius. Horat. Sar. lib. i.

sat. 7. ver. 1." . .

che, becomes us to sink into sordid and impure « terms, unless we are compelled by an unavoid is able necessity; but we should make a choice “ of words correspondent to the dignity of the « subject; and should imitate riature in her for“ mation of the human fabric, who has not “ placed the parts of our frame which are inde“ cent to mention, nor the vents of the body in “ open sight, but has concealed them as much “ as possible; and, as ZenOPHON observes, re" moved the channels to the greatest distance « from the eyes, thereby to preserve inviolable " the beauty of her workmanship *"

$ 12. Having given an accơunt of the nature of Tropes in general, I shall conclude the chapter with two observations.

First, If we would have a distinct and full idea of the beauty of a Trope, let us substitute' the natural expressions in the room of the tropical, and divest a bright phrase of its ornaments, by reducing it to plain and simple language, and then observe how inuch wé abate the value of the

C 2


* Ου γαρ δεν καταναν εν τοις όψεσιν εις τα ρυπαρα και εξυΟρισμενα, αν μη σφοδρα υπο τιν@- ανακης συνδιωκωμεθα αλλα των πραγματων σρεπου αν και τας φωνας εχειν αξιας, και μιμειοθαι την δημιουργήσασαν φυσιν του ανθρώπου, ητις εν ημιν τα fespan ta atoppata ex sonxev_ev mpoownw, ode te ty carla

ofx8 aspononuara' amempusfato de, ws sony, xan, rata Toy 2 * νοφωντα, και τες τετων οτι σορρωταω οχετες απεςρεψεν,” εδά.

Hehe na nata igurada to TE ORs {ws xaaac. LONGIN, de Sublin mitate, $ 43.

discourse. Of this method CICERO gives us an example;

"O live, ULYSSES, while you may, . “ Snatch the lait glimpses of the golden day. • The Poet does not say, take or feek (for either < of those words would intimate delay on the “ part of the speaker, as hoping that Ulysses “ would live some time longer) but snatch. This " word agrees with what is said before, while you may *.” - Secondly, Tropes and metaphorical expressions are used, according to the obfervation of Mr BLACKWALL, “ either for necessity, emphasis, or $6 decency. For necesity, when we have not pro& per words to declare our thoughts; for emplefis, when the proper words we have are not fo “ comprehensive and significant ; for decency, :“ when plain language would give offence and

distaste to the Reader t."


Vive, Ulysses, dum licet .. Oculis poftremum lumen radiatum rape.

Non dixit cape, non pete; haberet enim moram fperantis dia. tius effe fese victurum, fed rape; hoc verbum eft ad id apta.

tum, quod ante dixerat, dum licet. Cicer. de Orat. • Jib. iii. $ 40. . . .

BLACKWALL's Introduction to the Classics, part ii. chap. r.


The METAPHOR considered. **

§ 1. The definition of a Metaphor. $ 2. How

distinguished from a Trope, or how it appears to be only a species of the Trope. $ 3. How diftinguished from a Comparison. $ 4. What necessary to constitute a Metaphor or Comparison. $ 5. Which to be preferred, the Metaphor or Comparison, and upon what account. $ 6. InStances of Metaphors frorn Scripture. $7. Encomiums upon the Metaphor, by Cicero, ADDI. SON, LONGINUS, and Rollin. $. 8. The Metaphor requires wisdom and delicacy to manage it. $ 9. We should take heed our Metaphors are not inconsistent. $ 10. The indulgence and privilege in the use of Metaphors considered and confirmed

by examples. $ II. Mcthod how to avoid inconsistent Metaphors. $ 12. Inftances of incon

fiftent Metapbors in Authors of the first reputation, DODDRIDGE, Young, TILLOTSON, AN, DISON, and Cicero. § 13. Examples of beautiful Metaphors from DOODRIDGE, YOUNG, TILLOTSON, Addison, and CICERO. § 14. Metaphors not to be pursued too far; with instances of faults of this kind. $ 15: Metaphors C 3


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