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I will add one more inftance of the Prolepfis from this great Author: "Some one, fays he, "will afk, What? were thofe excellent men, "whofe virtues are upon record, were they in"deed pofsefsed of that learning you so highly "extol? I grant it would be difficult to prove "this of every one of them but yet I have a "fufficient
ut commoda fua, fed ut vitam falutemque totius provinciæ defenderem; fefe jam ne Deos quidem in fuis urbibus, ad quos confugeret habere; quod eorum fimulacra fanctiffima C. Verres ex delubris religioffimis fuftuliffet; quas res luxurias in flagitiis, crudelitas in fuppliciis, avaritia in rapinis, fuperbia în contumeliis efficere potuiffet, eas omneis fefe hoc uno prætore per triennium pertuliffe; rogare & orare, ne illos fupplices afpernarer, quos me incolumi, nemini fupplices effe oporteret. Tuli graviter & acerbe, judices, in eum me locum adductum, ut aut eos homines fpes falleret, qui opem à & auxilium petiffent, aut ego qui me ad defendendos homines ab ineunte adolefcentia dediffem tempore atque officio coactus ad accufandum traducerer. Dicebam, habere eos actorem Q Cæcilium, qui præfertim quæftor in eadem provincia poft me quæftorem fuiffet. Quo ego adjumento fperabam hanc à me moleftiam poffe dimoveri, id mihi erat adverfarium maxime; nam illi multo mihi hoc facilius remiffiffent, fi iftum non noffent, aut fi ifte apud eos quæftor non fuiffet,
Adductus fum, judices, officio, fide, mifericordia, multorum bonorum exemplo, veteri confuetudine, inftitutoque majorum, Put onus hoc laboris atque officii, non ex meorum neceffariorum tempore mihi fufcipiendum putarem. Quo in negotio tamen illa me res, judices! confolatur, quod hæc quæ videtur accufatio mea; non potius accufatio, quam defenfio eft exiftimanda. Defenda enim multos mortales, multas civitates, provinciam Siciliam totam. Quamobrem fi mihi unus est accufandus, propemodum manere in inftituto meo videor, & non omnino à defendendis hominibus, fublevandifque difcedere. CICER. Orat, in Q&CECILIUM, § 1.
fufficient answer. I allow that many men, eminent for their genius and their virtue, have appeared in our world; and that they, "without any inftruction, and by the almost
divine impulfe of their own nature, by then"felves alone, have attained to their wifdóm and "worth. I will add alfo, that nature without
learning oftener raises a character to glory and "virtue, than learning without nature: but ftill "I maintain it, that when the right method and habit of education have been fuperadded "to a genius great and noble in itself, I know "not what eminency, and almoft miracle, has blazed out upon mankind †."
3. We fhall now produce fome examples of this Figure in the facred Writings. Ifaiah xlix. 14. "But Zion faid, The LORD hath fors faken me, and my LORD hath forgotten me. SS Can a woman forget her fucking child, that
fhe fhould not have compassion on the son of O 3 " her
+ Quæret quifpiam quid? Illi ipfi fummi viri, quorum virtutes literis proditæ funt, iftare doctrina, quam tu laudibus effers, eruditi fuerunt? Difficile eft hoc de omnibus confirmare. Sed tamen certum eft quod refpondeam. Ego multos homines excellenti animo, ac virtute fuiffe, & fine doctrina, naturæ ipfius habitu prope divino per feipfos & moderatos & graves exftitiffe fateor. Etiam illud adjungo, fæpius ad laudem atque virtutem, naturam fine doctrina, quàm fine naturâ valuiffe doctrinam. Atque idem ego contendo, cum ad naturam eximiam atque illuftrem accefferit ratio quædam conformatioque doctrine; tum illud nefcio quid præclarum, ac fingulare folere exfiftere. CICER. Orat. pro ARCHIA Poet. n. 15.
" her womb? yea, they may forget, yet will S not I forget thee." So Rom. vi. 1. ss What SS fhall we fay then? Shall we continue in sin, "that grace may abound? GOD forbid," or far be the thought from us. SS How fhall we that "are dead to sin, live any longer therein ?" In like manner, Rom. ix. 19. "Thou wilt fay then " unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? for who " hath resifted his will? Nay but, O man, who "art thou that repliest against GOD? Shall the thing formed fay to him that formed it, why haft " thou made me thus? Hath not the potter power S over the clay, of the fame lump to make one svefsel unto honour, and another unto disho$$ nour? 35 So I Cor. xv. 35---39. But fome " men will say, How are the dead raised up? " and with what body do they come? Thou fool, that which thou foweft, is not quickened, "except it die and that which thou foweft, ss thou foweft not that body that shall be, but s bare grain; it may chance of wheat, or some 85 other grain: but God gives it a body as it s hath pleased him, and to every feed his own
§ 4. The ufe of this Figure is very considerable.
(1) By it attention is relieved, since the speaker, by the help of the Prolepfis, prevents a tedious uniformity in his address; and the hearer may be much entertained by finding, that the orator departs for a while from the ufual order and form
of discourse, to indulge a kind of familiar dialogue.
(2) By this Figure the speaker gains the reputation of foresight and care. The Prolepfis fhews that the orator is master of his fubject, and that he has a full view of its connexions and confequences, in that he fees what may be objected against, as well as what may be alledged for his cause.
(3) This Figure manifefts the assurance of the fpeaker, that truth and juftice are on his side: he fears not an objection; he starts it himself, he dares to meet and encounter it, and will fhew his audience how effectually he can disarm and diffolve it. But by the way, let the speaker take heed how he raises an objection that he cannot entirely refute if he does this, he will be like a man who vain-gloriously challenges an enemy to fight with him, and urges him to the combat, and then is fhamefully overcome by him. And besides, if an objection is not well answered, the whole cause may be brought into fufpicion, and truth may fuffer through the folly.
(4) When the fpeaker appears desirous to represent matters fairly, and not to conceal any objection that may be made against his discourse, fuch a conduct may tend to fecure the favour of his auditory, as it carries with it the face of a commendable impartiality. And,
(5) and Laftly, By this Figure fome advantage is gained over an adverfary. He is prevented in his exceptions, and either confounded and si04
lenced, or obliged to a repetition, which is not likely to be fo ftriking and forcible as the mention of a thing fresh and untouched before +.
+ Mirè vero in caufis valet prefumptio, quæ eons dicitur, cùm id quod objici poteft, occupamus. QUINTIL. lib. ix. cap. 2. § I.
The SYNCHORESIS confidered.
§ 1. The definition of the Synchorefis. § 2. Examples of it from CICERO, CATO, and VIRGIL. $3. Inftances from Scripture, with remarks.
Synchorefis is a Figure whereby we grant
or yield up fomething, in order to gain a point, which we could not fo well fecure without it .
§ 2. When CICERO pleaded for FLACCUS, his business was to invalidate the teftimony of the Greeks,
* From ovlxweew, I grant.
+ Permiffio eft cum oftendimus in dicendo nos aliquam rem totam tradere & concedere alicujus voluntati. CICER. ad HrRENNIUM, lib. iv. n. 29.