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• discourse? Will you, says he, running about “ the city, ask one another, What's the news? " Why, what fresher news than that a Macedo66 nian makes war upon Greece? Is Philip « dead? No, by heaven but he is sick. But si what benefit is this to you? If PHILIP .« should die, you will soon conjure up another « Philip in his room. And again the same « Orator says, Let us fail into Macedonia. But “ where shall we land? Why the war itself will " shew us where Philip is weakest. But all " this, if it had been plainly spoken, would “ have been far beneath the subject; but the “ spirit and rapidity of the question and answer, “ and the Orator's replying upon himself, as if '" he was answering another, not only ennoble
« his oration, but give it an air of probability., ." The pathetic is then in its glory, when the
« speaker does not appear to have studied his .« Figures, but when the very occasion seenis to 66 have produced thein. Now this way of in« terrogating and answering one's self well re-, « presents such an occasion : for as they who “ are demanded by others, instantly rouse them“ selves with eagerness to make a reply; fo this “ Figure of question and answer leads the hearer “ into a persuasion, that what is the effect of “ study is conceived and uttered without any “ premeditation *.”
* T. SO EXElva Gwuss, tas a EVOBIS xæs sgwrnosis ; aga ox μυταις ταις των χηματων ειδοποιιαις παραπολυ εμπρακοτερα
To the observations of QUINTILIAN and LONGINUS, let me add the sentiments of the celebrated Dr YOUNG on this Figure. « This speech *6 of the Alınighty,” says he, in the notes he has added to his Paraphrase on Part of the Book of JOB, « is made up of Interrogations. Interroga« tion feems indeed the proper ftile of majesty * incensed : it differs from other manner of re-, 46 proof, as bidding a perfon execute himfelf, 4¢ does from a common execution; for he that «ς alks the guilty perfon a queftion, makes him, 46 in effect, pafs sentence upon himfelf.”
$ 5. Let us only, for a conclusion of our discourse on this Figure, try by two or three exam
και σοβαρότερα συνεινει τα λεγομενα ; « Η βελειθε, ειπε μου σεριιονιες αλληλων συνθανεθαι, λεγεται το καινον και τι γαρ αν γενοι1ο (Tele) καινοτερον, η Μακεδων ανηρ καταπολεμων την Ελ. λαδα και τεθνηκε ΦιλιππG- και ο μα Δι', αλλ' αθενει' τι δ' υμιν διαφερει; και γαρ αν ου1%- τι παθη, ταχεως υμεις ετερον Φίλιπ. πον σουησείο.” Και παλιν, « Πλεωμεν ει Μακεδονιαν, φησι σοι δη προσορμιάμεθα και ηρετο τις ευρησει τα σαθρα των Φλιππε πραγματων αυθο- ο πολεμG-.” Ην δε, απλως ρηθεν, το πραγμα τω σανλι καλαδεςερον νυνι δε το ενθεν και οξυρροπον της πευσεως και αποκρισεως, και το πεG- εαυτον ως σεφ ετερο» ανθυπανίαν, και μονον υψηλοτερον εποιησε τω χηματισμω το ρηθεν, αλλα και σιγοθερού. Αγει γαρ τα παθητικα τοτε μαλλον, • Ίαν αυλα φαινηθαι μη επιτηδευειν αυ7G- ο λεγων, αλλα γενναν ο καιρ@-· η δε ερωτησεις η εις εαυτον, και αποκρισις μιμειιαι τα παθες το επικαιρον. Σχεδον γαρ, ως οι υφ' ετερων ερωτωμενοι, παροξυνοντες εκ τε παραχρημα, πρG- το λεχθεν εναγωνίως και απ' αυτης αληθειας ανθυπανωσιν: ε1ω το χωμα της πευσεως και αποκρισεως, εις το δοκειν εκατο» των εσκεμμενων εξ υπογυιο κεκινησθαι τε και λεγεθαι. LONGINUs de Sublimitate, $ 18.
ples its excellence and power, by obferving how the very same ideas thrown into a simple and plain form, immediately become flat and languid, or at least lose much of their force. : · TIBERIUS, in his discourse concerning the Figures used by DEMOSTHENES, observes, « that “ the Interrogation is serviceable for reprehen“sion,” and gives us the following instance from that great Orator : “ In doing these things, “ did he act unjustly, violate his league, and 6 break the peace, did he, of did he not? “. Did it become any Grecian to step forth to c.controll this conduct, or did it not?" Only let it be faid, that the enemy acted unjustly, violated his league, and broke the peace, and tháť it became every Grecian to make head against him, and the Spirit of the Orator is evaporated; whereas by the repeated Interrogation, as TIBERIUS observes, DEMOSTHENES exposes the unbounded infolence of the enemy'ti wa · What a divine grandeur and energy are there in the following passage in BALAAM's speech! Numb. xxiii. 19. ^ God is not a man that he ss fhould lie; neither the son of man that he $ should repent. Hath he said it, and shall not ss he do it? or hath he spoken, and shall not he s make it good ? Throw out the Interrogat
. . . . . . tions, * Ποτερον ταυλα ποιων ηδικεί και παρέσπονδει και ελνε την tiện này, 3 8; xác đàof op pavyi Tawa EAA vuon Toy Taela &a: Feavoorld Olesa steari appun; 'tw dovezes ons egwinto'ows the urugós tas amend notws e Enerxer. TIBERIUS, & 12.
tions, and reduce the words to a plain affirmation, and the life and force instantly vanish, or are greatly weakened, as will be evident upon the trial : “ God is not a man that he Tould lie, cc neither the son of man that he should repent; « what he has said he will do, and what he hath « spoken he will make good.”
Might I not in the same view mention 7ob xi.
? ss Canst thou by searching find out God? ss Canft thou find out the Almighty unto perfecss tion? It is high as heaven, what canst thou ss do? deeper than hell, what canst thou know ?ss Where would be the vigour and vehemence of this passage, if once divested of the Interrogations ? and it should be said, Thou canst not by fearching find out God; thou canst not find him out to perfection: it is as high as heaven, and thou canst do nothing ; and it is as deep as hell, and thou canst know nothing.
How does St Paul, says the ingenious Mr SMITH, in his translation of LONGINUS, in Afts xxvi. transfer his discourse from Festus to AGRIPPA? In verfe 26. he speaks of him in the third person : ss The King, says he, knows $$ of these things, before whom also I fpeak ss freely.s. Then, in the following, he turns fhort upon him: ss King AGRIPPA, believest ss thou the Prophets ? ss and immediately answers his own question, s I know that thou bess lievest.ss :« The smoothest eloquence,” adds Mr SMITH, “ the most insinuating complai
." fance, « fance, could never have made such an im« pression upon AGRIPPA, as this unexpected « and pathetic address t." : . + Smith's Longinus, page 93. .
$1. The definition of the Prolepsis. $ 2. Exam
ples of it from Juvenal and CICERO. § 3. Instances from Scripture. $ 4. The various ad. vantages of this Figure.
$1. D Rolepsis * is a Figure by which a
I speaker suggests an objection against what he is advancing, and returns an answer to it: or it is a Figure by which a speaker, more especially at the entrance upon his discourse, ree inoves any sort of obstruction that he foresees may be likely to prevent the success of his cause.
$ 2. We have an instance of this kind in the following lines of Juvenal: · And shall we then no kind of with allow? Hear my advice, if you your bliss would know: .
. Leave * From agoram @aw, I anticipate, or prevent. "