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Cicero, in a letter to ATTICUS, makes use of this Figure in a great perturbation of mind. “I “ know nothing of Pompey, and believe he 66 must be taken, if he has not got on shipboard.
O incredible swiftness ! But of our friend --
Though I cannot accuse him without sorrow, “ for whom I feel such pain and anguish *.” The same Figure is also employed by him to express his gloomy anxiety, when he thus writes to his friend CASSIUS: “ BRUTUS could scarce sup*« port himself at Mutina. If he is safe, the day " is ours : but if not (may Heaven avert the 66 omen !) all must have recourse to you t." He ineans, if Brutus is defeated. .
JUVENAL concludes his eighth satire, in which he lashes the Romans for priding themselves in their high birth, with an Apofiopefis :
Better that from THERSITES' I loins you came,
* De Pompeio scio nihil; eumque, nisi in navim fese conculerit, exceptum iri puto. O celeritatem incredibilem ! hujus autem nostri — Sed non poffum fine dolore accusare eum, de quo angor & crucior. Cicer. ad ATTICUM Epif. lib. vii. epist. 22.
+ Brutus Mutinæ vix jam fuftinebat. Qui si conservatus erit vivimus, fin, quod Dii omen avertant ! omnis omnium cursus eft ad vos. Cicer. ad Familiar. lib. xii. epift. 6.
I The name of a worthless fellow, mentioned by Homer.
Your boasted pedigree up to its fource ;
Your ancestors were shepherds, or more base;
$ 4. The Scripture makes use of this Figure upon the following occasions :
In a way of promise. 2 Sam. v. 8. ss And ss David said, On that day whosoever gets up to $5. the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the s lame and the blind, that are hated of David's ss soul ss.-- Here the speech stops; but what is understood is, that he who does this service pall be chief captain, as we learn from comparing this place with i Chron, xi. 6. ' In like manner, Dan. iii. 15. ss Now if ye be ready,'s the words of Nea BUCHADNEZZAR, ss that at what time ye hear the. ss found of the cornet, Aute, harp, fackbut; ss pfaltery, dulcimer, and all kinds of music ss-Here the speech is broken ; but our Translation supplies the word well, which undoubtedly is understood.
This Figure is used in Scripture in a way of anger or commination. Gen. iii. 22. s And ss now lest he," that is, ADAM, - put forth his
i ss hand, * Malo pater tibi Thersites, dummodo tu sis. .
Æacidæ fimilis, Vulcaniaque arma capellas,
ss hand, and eat, and live for ever." As a supplement to the words, which are the threatning of the Almighty against ADAM for his sin in eating the forbidden fruit, we are to add, “I " will banish him from paradise, and guard the “ 'passage against his re-admission there.” In like manner, James iii. 5. ss My brethren, says s the Apostle, be not many masters, knowing ss that ye shall receive the greater condemna* tion ;s that is, unless we cease from a censorious and arrogant judgment of others.
This Figure is sometiines employed in the sacred Writings to give vent to forrow and complaint. Psalm vi. 3. " My foul is fore vexed, ss but thou, O LORD, how long ? that is, “ how 6 long wilt thou continue the tokens of thy “ difpleasure against me? or, how long will it be “ ere thou wilt attend to my cry, and relieve ** me?” So again, Luke xix. 42. * If thou hadst so known, the words of our LORD lamenting over Jerusalem, " even thou, at least in this thy ss day, the things which belong to thy peace ! ss but now are they hid from thine eyes :'s that is, « how happy hadst thou been if thou hadst “ known the things that belong to thy peace.”
This Figure is made use of in sacred Writ in solemn oaths and appeals to Heaven. Sam. iii. 17. ss God do so to thee, and more also, if - thou hide any thing from me:" that is, “I :“ adjure thee, by an imprecation of the divine « vengeance upon thee if thou refuseft my de65 sire, that you tell me the whole matter."
Thus Heb. iii. 10. - To whoin I fware in any
wrath, if they shall enter into my rest ;ss that is, “if they do enter into my rest, I am not GOD, • and my truth is pledged in vain."
: $ 5. The use of this Figure is to communicate our passions in public speaking, just in the same manner as they are found to operate in nature, and hereby we may expect to engage and inflame the minds of our audience. These suppressions are the genuine products of anger, forrów, fear, and the other passions, wrought up to violence in the soul, which are too mighty and yehement for utterance. But let us take heed that this Figure does not become too common, and thereby lose its efficacy; and let us also beware that the Apofiopefis does not obfcure our meaning, for when this Figure is properly managed, though our sense is not expressed, yet it is readily understood; and the subsequent thought is so obvious, that it strikes the mind, notwithstanding it is not uttered by words. Nay, when the Apohopesis is well conducted, there may be weight and energy given to the sentiment, which words are not able to represent; and our silence shall, it may be, have more power upon our hearers than a diffusive eloquence. “ An Apofiopefis,” says DEMETRIUS PHALAREUS, “ infuses a strength into our disis courses *.” “ This Figure," the words of
HERMOGENES, * Η ειρημενη δε Αποσιωπησις δεινοτερον ποιησει τον λογον. De Elocutione, $ 276.
HERMOGENES, « animates our speech, and seems « to be dictated from the soul only; as where “ DEMOSTHENES says, Then as to myself --- but I “ am unwilling to speak any thing severe, especially « at the beginning of my address, And on ano" ther occasion, For not concerning these --- but I « will suppress what occurred to my mind *.” .
To an Orator that successfully uses this Fi. gure, I may apply, with some variation, a line of Dr Young's, in his epitaph on Lord AUBREY BEAUCLERK ; who, upon receiving a mortal wound in an engagement of his ship with the Spaniards, ordered his successor in command still to maintain the fight against the enemy.
The soul still feels him when he speaks no more t. .
* Και η Αποσιώπησις δε ενδιαθετε λογ8, και ως αληθως, οιον, εμψυχε. Παραδειγμα ταυτης: “ Αλλ' εμοι μεν, ου βουλομαι . « δε δυοχερες ουδεν ευπειν αρχομενό τε λογου.” Και εν τω utig weyado nodotwv, “ Ou youp wigo TOUTW ada'sQow Toy! “ sabor sumtuY, Mqs.". Hermogen.' de Ideis, lib. ii. $7.de verâ Oratione.
of The epitaph of Dr Young; though the last line only is what I have taken the liberty to accommodate to my purpose, is as follows:
While Britain boasts her empire o'er the deep, . .
As men, as Britons, and as soldiers mourn, CD'er dauntless, loyal, virtuous BEAUCLERK's urn. I : Sweet were his manners, as his soul was great ;
And ripe his worth, tho' immature his fate.