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A Trope a sov'reign pow'r o'er language shows,
A And upon words a foreign sense bestows. 'God is a Rock, and guards his Saints from ill; Herod 's a Fox, and will be cruel ftil).
A METAPHOR compares without the fign: Virtue's a fun, and fall for ever shine.
An ALLEGORY in a length of chain
« Was rescu'd and remov'd to Canaan's land.
“ Bleft the full beam, and drank th’enliv'ning dew: - 66 Deep in the earth it struck its thriving root,...
« Enlarg'd with foliage, and enrich'd with fruit :
* The wide-extended fhade the hills admir'd, « And cedar-like to Heav'n its boughs afpir’d: “ But now with hungry rage and lawless pow'r,..in “ The mountain-bull and forest-boar devour: "... * Inclosures, clusters, boughs their fury tares, “ And fire consumes what brutal havock spares. “ Look, gracious God, on this thy mournful vine, “ And let thy guardian care atteft it thine !"..
A METONYMY will, for kindred's fake, . The name of one thing for another take." Causes effects intend. His fin will find Th' offender out, and rack his:conscious mind' *. Effects the cause denote. Pale death destroys . Gay giddy youth, and blasts its blooming joys...: Subjects for adjunéts stand. Friends, take the cup, And thankful for its blessings drink it up t. . ;.; Adjuncts the subjects mean. Mankind despise .-,,.. Virtue alive, but wail her when she dies. ' I . ..!
A METALEPSIS throng'd with Tropes appears. ve
SxNECDOCHE our ftile diversifies, And at her call a thousand beauties rise. La The whole intends a parta. To quench the flames -... Of raging thirst we drank the silver Thames. '-... posted A part denotes the whole. At Blenheim's field, and How did great MARLBOROUGH Britain's thunder wield, Sweep down the Gallic ranks, and fill the plain With purple currents, and with heaps of lain!
Genius ***Numb. xxxii. 23. 5. + Matt. xxvi. 27....
Genus for species stands. New life proclaim
ANTONOMASIA for a common name A proper useș. Tow'ring into fame, See that young CÆSAR! By revers'd command, ... A common for a proper name shall stand... - : How shone the Orator † in that great hour, . . When the world's Monarch fhook beneath his pow'r!"
: . ... *. An • Mark xvi. 15. Chcero. CÆSAR.
| The story here referred to is thus related by Dr WARD, in his Latin Oration prefixed to his System of Oratory, which I hall take the liberty to translate. “ But I cannot, says the * Doctor, reftrajn myself from mentioning how this moft emi. * nent man (CICERO). obtained the Kberty of his friend, ac“ cused of a capital offence; an occafion in which, if ever, & the utmost ftrength of his eloquence exerted isfelf. The s civil war between CÆSAR and Pompey being ended, and “ the fovereignty of Rame being now in the hapes of CÆSAR, * QUINTUS LIGARIUS was accused by R.TUBERO of being
in arms against Cæsar in Africa. CICERO undertook Li• Garzus's defence. Upor Cesar's being made acquainted “ with it, he cries, #’by Bould sex bear what Cicero has to “ fay? The man is guilty se bate cazija be pleads, and is unques* tionably a wickei enemy againja 23. But when Cocero be. “ gan to speak, his oration appeared to admirable for its pao " thos and various elegance, that it wonderfully wrought “ upon CASAR, which he at first discovered by a confused
countenance, and che frequent shange of colour, but in a « while he was thrown into such perturbation, that his whole
body trembled, and he dropped fome parchments out of his « hand. In the end Cicero carried his cause, and Liga« Rus was set free,. Thus the Sovereign of so many nations
An IRONY in smooth mellifluent phrase Its poison foots, and wounds with deep disgrace. " Ye are the men of all mankind most wise, “ And when ye die, no doubt all wisdom dies ***
SARCASM is Irony in its excess: « King of the Jews, thee hümbly we address; “ Low at thy feet we bend submissive down, « Revere thy reed, and hail thy thorny crown t."
HYPERBOLE the truth will oft" tieglect By bold excefs, and by as bold defect. Mark how it rife's. « Yon tall mountain shrowds “ Its height in heav'n, and tow'rs above the clouds." Again it finks. « Shall man his grandeur boast : « An atom of an atom-world at moft !"
A CATACHRËSIS thro the want of words, Or fond of charms which novelty affords, Boldly bounds o'er expression's wonted fence, And makes the Reader tremble for the fenfe. “ How swift those cranes, exulting in the gale, 66 Thro' the cerulean gulphs of Æther fail? « For me the wheat's fat kidneys crown the plains, • And mine's the blood the mellow grape contains 1." “ was overcome by the force of Eloquence ; and he who had 6 carried his vi&orious arms to almost every part of the globe, “.was himself at length vanquished by more powerful weapons. « An illustrious victory indeed ! in which Cicero might well « boast, that arms had yielded to the gown,"
• Job xii. 2. + Matt. xxvii, 23. 1 Deuti xxxii. 14.