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stead of welding them together in harmonious groups; and has thus sacrificed both variety of line and richness of combination. In spite of this, his fresco, a work too little known, is the one that comes nearest to Leonardo's masterpiece.
With Domenico Ghirlandajo's fresco, in the convent of San Marco at Florence, we return to the vagaries of the Primitives. The grouping is faulty to a degree. The apostles at the end of the table are huddled together, those near Jesus are too far apart; the stooping figure of S. John leaves an unpleasant void in the composition, which Judas, who is placed opposite, on the outside of the table, fills but imperfectly. The general lack of animation and unity aggravates this initial fault; the majority of the apostles know not what to think, still less what to say. One clasps his hands and raises his eyes to heaven; another throws back the folds of his toga with an unmeaning gesture; not one among them shows any vigour, not to say eloquence. Ghirlandajo, indeed, seems to have depicted the institution of the Eucharist (" Dispono vobis sicut ....") rather than the revelation of Judas' treachery.
A Last Supper contemporary with Leonardo's adorns the refectory of the monastery of Sant' Onofrio at Florence. Certain accomplished critics, M. Vitet among the number, have attributed it to Raphael, but on insufficient grounds. It is a timid work, and but for the youthful grace of expression in some of the heads, one might describe it as childish, so naively does the painter's inexperience betray itself in the dramatic conception of the subject. The beloved apostle, his head on the table, appears to be sleeping; thus one actor disappears; another pours himself out some wine; the rest look calmly in front of them. As to Judas, he is placed, as usual, on the near side of the table, opposite to Jesus. We look in vain for men who show traces of astonishment, indignation, or grief; all we see are personages—and even this is almost too emphatic a term for them—without elevation and without character. I pass over the other faults of the composition, the absence of grouping, the distraction caused by the portrayal of the subordinate incident in the background—Christ on the Mount of Olives—the introduction of movable discs, detaching themselves in the most puerile fashion on the chancel enframing the principal