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not be included as a part of the city debt. The amount hereafter to be raised by tax for county or city purposes, in any county containing a city of over one hundred thousand inhabit. ants, or any such city of this State, in addition to providing for the principal and interest of existing debt, shall not in the aggregate exceed in any one year two per centum of the assessed valuation of the real and personal estate of such county or city, to be ascertained as prescribed in this section in respect to county or city debt.

$ 11. State commissioners.- The Legislature shall provide for a state board of charities, which shall visit and inspect all institutions, whether state, county, municipal, incorporated or not incorporated, which are of a charitable, eleemosynary, cor. . rectional or reformatory character, excepting only such insti. tutions as are hereby made subject to the visitation and inspection of either of the commissions hereinafter mentionel, but including all reformatories except those in which adult males convicted of felony shall be confined; a state commission in lunacy, which shall visit and inspect all institutions, either public or private, used for the care and treatment of the insane (not including institutions for epileptics or idiots); a state commission of prisons which shall visit and inspect all institutions used for the detention of sane adults charged with or convicted of crime, or detained as witnesses or debtors.

$ 12. How appointed. — The members of the said board and of the said commissions shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and any member may be removed from office by the Governor for cause, an opportunity having been given him to be heard in his defense.

$ 13. Existing laws.- Existing laws relating to institutions referred to in the foregoing sections and to their supervision and inspection, in so far as such laws are not inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution, shall remain in force until amended or repealed by the Legislature. The visitation and

inspection herein provided for, shall not be exclusive of other visitation and inspection now authorized by law.

3 14. Charitable institutions.- Nothing in this. Constitution contained shall prevent the Legislature from making such provision for the education and support of the blind, the deaf and dumb, and juvenile delinquents as to it may seem proper; or prevent any county, city, town or village from providing for the care, support, maintenance and secular education, of inmates of orphan asylums, homes for dependent children or correctional institutions, whether under public or private control. Payments by counties, cities, towns and villages to charitable, eleemosynary, correctional and reformatory institutions, wholly or partly under private control, for care, support and maintenance, may be authorized, but shall not be required by the Legislature. No such payments shall be made for any inmate of such institutions who is not received and retained therein pursuant to rules established by the state board of charities. Such rules shall be subject to the control of the Legislature by general laws. $ 15. Additional powers

Commissioners of the state board of charities and commissioners of the state commission in lunacy, now holding office, shall be continued in office for the term for which they were appointed, respectively, unless the Legislature shall otherwise provide. The Legislature may confer upon the cominissioners and upon the board mentioned in the foregoing sections any additional powers that are not in. consistent with other provisions of the Constitution.

ARTICLE IX.-EDUCATION. Section 1. Free schools.- The Legislature shall provide for the maintenance and support of a system of free common schools, wherein all the children of this State may be educated.

$ 2. Regents of the University.— The corporation created in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, under the name of The Regents of the University of the State of New

York, is hereby continued under the name of The University of the State of New York. It shall be governed and its corporate powers, which may be increased, modified or diminished by the Legislature, shall be exercised by not less than nine regents.

3. How applied. The capital of the common school fund, the capital of the literature fund, and the capital of the United States deposit fund, shall be respectively preserved inviolate. The revenue of the said common school fund shall be applied to the support of common schools; the revenue of the said literature fund shall be applied to the support of academies; and the sum of twenty-ave thousand dollars of the revenues of the United States deposit fund shall each year be appropriated to and made part of the capital of the said common school fund.

§ 4. Sectarian appropriations.— Neither the State nor any subdivision thereof, shall use its property or credit or any public money, or authorize or permit either to be used, directly or indirectly, in aid or maintenance, other than for examination or inspection, of any school or institution of learning wholly or in part under the control or direction of any religious denomina-. tion, or in which any denominational tenet or doctrine is taught.

CHAPTER II.

THE STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION LAW.

LAWS OF 1892, CHAPTER 677.

AN ACT relating to the construction of statutes, constituting

chapter one of the general laws. The People of the State of New York, represented in Senato and Assembly, do enact as follows:

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CHAPTER I OF THE GENERAL LAWS.

THE STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION LAW.

Section 1. Short title; extent of application.

2. Property.
3. Real property.
4. Personal property.
8. Person.
6. Judge
ī Lunacy; idiocy.
8. Gender; number; tense
9. Heretofore; hereafter; now
10. Last; preceding; next; following:
11. Folio.
12. Writing; signature.
13. Seal.
14. Oath; affidavit; swear.
15. Acknowledge; acknowledgment.
16. Bond; undertaking.
17. Choose; elect; appoint.
18. Board composed of one person.
19. Meeting; quorum; powers of majority.
20. Service of notice upon board or body.
21. County clerk; register.
22. Village,
23. State.

Section 24. Public holiday; ball-holiday.,

25. Year.
26. Month,
27. Day; mode of computing days; night-time.
28. Standard time.
29. Civil and criminal codes.
30. Laws of England and of the colony of New York,
31. Limiting the effect of repealing statutes.
32. Effect of repeal and re-enactment.
33. Effect of revision upon laws passed at same session or before

revision takes effect.
34. Alterations of titles and head notes
35. Laws repealed.
36. Time of taking effect.

Section 1. Short title; extent of application. This chapter shall be known as the statutory construction law, and is appllcable to every statute unless its general object or the context of the language construed, cr other provisions of law indicate that a different meaning or application was intended from that required to be given by this chapter.

§ 2. Property.—The term property includes real and personal property.

§ 3. Real property. - The term real property includes real estate, lands, tenements and hereditaments, corporeal and incorporeal.

§ 4. Personal property. The term personal property includes chartels, money, things in action, and all written instruments themselves, as distinguished from the rights or interests to which they relate, by which any right, interest, lien or incumbrance in, to or upon property, or any debt or financial obligation is created, acknowledged, evidenced, transferred, discharged or defeated, wholly or in part, and everything, except real property, which may be the subject of ownership. The term chattels includes goods and chattels.

§ 5. Person.— The term person includes a corporation and a · joint stock association. When used to designate a party, whose property may be the subject of any offense, the term person also includes the state, or any other state, government or country which may lawfully own property in the state.

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