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8. C. Judge - The term judge includes every judicial officer authorized, alone or with others, to hold or preside over a court of recorde
§ 7. Lunacy; idiocy. - The terms lunatic and lunacy Include every kind of unsoundness of mind except idiocy.
§ 8. Gender; number tense - Words of the masculine gender include thje feminine and the neuter, and may refer to a corporation, or to a board or other body or assemblage of persons; and, when the sense so indicates, words of the neuter gender may refer to any gender. The term men includes boys and the term women includes girls.
Words in the singular number include the plural, and in the plural number include the singular.
Words in the present tense include the future.
$ 9. Heretofore; hercafcer; now.- Each of the terms, heretofore, and hereafter, in any provision of a statute, relates to the time suich provision takes effect. The term now in any provision of a statute referring to other laws in force, or to persons in office, or to any facts or circumstances as existing, relates to the laws in force, or the person in office, or to the facts or circumstances existing, respectively, immediately before the taking effect of such provision.
§ 10. Last; preceding; next; following.- A reference to the last or preceding section, or other provision of a statute, means the section or other division immediately preceding, and a reference to the next or following section or other division of a statute means the section or other division immediately following.
§ 11. Folio.- A folio is one hundred words, counting as a word each figure necessarily used.
§ 12. Writing ; signature. – The terms writing and written include every legible representation of letters upon a material substance, except when applied to the signature of an “instrument. The term signature includes any memorandum, mark or sign, written or placed upon any instrument or writing with intent to execute or authenticate such instrument or writing.
§ 13. Seal.— The private seal of a person, other than a corporation, to any instrument or writing shall consist of a wafer, wax or
other similar adhesive substance affixed thereto, or of paper or other similar substance affixed thereto, by mucilage or other adhesive substance, or of the word “seal,” or the letters “L S.," opposite the signature.
A seal of a court, public officer or corporation may be impressed directly upon the instrument or writing to be sealed, or upon wafer, wax or other adhesive substance affixed thereto, or upon paper or other similar substance affixed thereto by muci. lage or other adhesive substance. An instrument or writing duly executed, in the corporate name of a corporation, which shall not have adopted a corporate seal, by the proper officers of the corporation under their private seals, shall be deemed to have been executed under the corporate seal.
§ 14. Oath; affidavit; swear. The terms oath and affidavit include every mode authorized by law of attesting the truth of that which is stated.
The term swear includes every mode authorized by law for administering an oath. When an affidavit is authorized or required it may be sworn to before any officer authorized by law to take the acknowledgment of deeds in this state, unless a particular officer is specified before whom is is to be taken.
§ 15. Acknowledge; acknowledgment.- When the execution of any instrument or writing is authorized or required by law to be acknowledged, or to be proven so as to entitle it to be filed or recorded in a public oflice, the acknowledgment may be taken or the proof made before any officer then and there authorized to take the acknowledgment or proof of the execution or a deed of real property to entitle it to be recorded in a county clerk's office, and shall be made and certified in the same manner as such acknowledgment or proof of such deed.
The term acknowledge and acknowledgment, when used with reference to the execution of an instrument or writing othen than a deed of real property, includes a compliance with the pro visious of this section by either such proof or acknowledgment.
§ 10. Bonds; undertakings.- A provision of law authorizing or requiring a bond to be given shall be deemed to have been complied with by the execution of an undertaking to the same effect.
§ 17. Choose; elect; appoint. The term choose includes elect and appoint.
§ 18. Board composed of one person. - A reference to several officers of a municipal corporation holding the same office, or to a board of such officers, shall be deemed to refer to the single officer holding such office, when but one person is chosen to fill such office in pursuance of law
§ 19. Meeting; quorum; powers of majority - Whenever three or more public officers are given any power or authority, or three or more persons are charged with any public duty to be performed or exercised by them jointly or as a board op similar body, a majority of all such persons or officers at a meeting duly held at a time fixed by law, or by any by-law duly adopted by such board or body, or at any duly adjourned meet ing of such meeting, or at any meeting duly beld upon reason able notice to all of them, may perform and exercise such power, authority or duty, and if one or more of such persons or officers shall have died or have become mentally incapable of acting, or shall refuse or neglect tu attend any such meeting, a majority of the whole number of such persong or officers shall be a quorum of such board or body, and a majority of a quorum, if not less than a majority of the whole number of such persons or officers, may perform and exercise any such power, authority or duty. Any such meeting may be adjourned by a less number than a quorum. A recital in any order, resolution or other record of any proceeding of such a meeting that such meeting had been so held or adjourned, or that it had been held upon such notice to the members, shall be presumptive evidence thereof.
$ 20. Service of notice upon body or board.- When a notice is required to be given to a board er body, service of such notice upon the clerk or chairman thereof shall be sufficient.
$ 21. County clerk; Register - Any act done in pursuance of law by the register of a county shall be deemed to be a compliance with any provision of law authorizing or requiring such act to be done by the county clerk of such county, and any instrument or writing filed, entered or recorded in pursuance of law in the office of a register of a county, shall be deemed to be a com.pliance with any provision of law authorizing or requiring
such paper to be filed, entered or recorded, as the case may be, in the office of the clerk of such county.
$ 22. Village.—The term village means an incorporated village.
$ 23. State ; territory. The term state, when used generally to include every state of the United States, includes also every territory of the United States and the District of Columbia. The term territory when used generally to include every territory of the United States, includes also the District of Columbia.
$ 24. Public holiday; half-holiday. - The term holiday includes the following days in each year: The first day of January, known as New Year's day; the twenty-second day of February, known as Washington's birthday; the thirticth day of May, known as memorial day; the fourth day of July, known as independence day; the first Monday of September, known as labor day, and the twenty-fifth day of December, known as Christmas day, and if either of such days is Sunday, the next day thereafter; each general election day and each day appointed by the president of the United States or by the governor of this state as a day of general thanksgiving, general fasting and prayer, or other general religious observance.
The term half-holiday includes the period from noon to midnight of each Saturday which is not a holiday.
§ 25. Year.-Time shall continue to be computed in this state according to the Gregorian or new style. The first day of each year after the year 1752 is the first day of January, according to such style. For the purpose of computing and reckoning the days of the year in the same regular course in the future, every year, the number of which in the Christian era is a multiple of four, is a bisextile or leap year consisting of three hundred and sixty-six days, unless such number of the year is a multiple of one hundred and the first two figures thereof treated as a separate number is not a multiple of four, and every year which is not a leap year is a common year consisting of three hundred and sixty-five days.
The term year in a statute, contract, or any public or private instrument, means three hundred and sixty-five days, but the added day of a leap year and the day immediately preceding
shall for the purpose of such computation be counted as one day.
In a statute, contract or public or private instrument, the term year means twelve months, the term half-year, six months, and the term a quarter of a year, three months.
§ 26. Month - In a statute, contract or public or private instru. ment, unless otherwise provided in such contract or instrument or by law, the term month means a calendar month and not a lunar month. A number of months after or before a certain day shall be computed by counting such number of calendar months from such day, exclusive of the calendar month in which such day occurs, and shall include the day of the month in the last month so counted having the same numerical order in days of the month as the day from which the computation is made, unless there be not so many days in the last month so counted, in which case the period computed shall expire with the last day of the month so counted.
§ 27. Day; mode of computing days ; night-time.- A calendar duy includes the time from midnight to midnight Sunday or ary day of the week specifically mentioned means a calendar day. A nun.ber of days specified as a period from a certain day within which or after or before which an act is authorized or required to be done means such number of calendar days exclusive of the calendar day from which the reckoning is made. Sunday ox a public holiday other than 'a half-holiday must be excluded from the reckoning if it is the last day of any such period or if it is an intervening day of any such period of two days. In computing any specified number of days, weeks or months from a specified event, the day upon which the event happens is deemed the day from which the reckoning is made. The day from which any specified number of days, weeks or months of time is reckoned shall be excluderl in making the reckoning.
Night-time includes the time from sunset to sunrise. (AS amended by L. 1894, ch. 447.)
§ 28. Standard time. — The standard time throughout this state is that of the seventy-fifth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, and all courts and public officers, and legal and