Saintly Brokers: Uyghur Muslims, Trade, and the Making of Qing Central Asia, 1696--1814
During the Qing-Zunghar war (1696-1759), the Uyghur Muslims allied themselves to the Qing side in order to participate in the wartime economic boom in the Central Asian frontier, created by the Qing army's need to purchase military supplies from local Muslims. After the Qing conquest of Muslim Xinjiang in 1759, these Muslims worked as commerce brokers for the new Qing empire, which aggressively tapped into trade as the source of its state and imperial finance. Shared, if conflicting, commercial interests in the exploitation of the overland trade as well as common concern about the resurgence of the expelled rulers of the region, the Kashgar khojas, intensified the mutual dependence of the Qing rulers and the Muslims during the Qianlong Period.
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Aksu Altishar aristocrat titles Asia Badakshan Beijing Burhan al-din’s Central Asian century Chenghua China Chinese merchants colored money Commander commercial customs duties Edict to Grand Emin’s ﬁrst frontier Gansu Ganzhou Gao Pu gong Govemor Governor Hakim Grand Councilors Grand Minister GZSL Hami Hami Muslims headmen horses Huihui Ibid Imperial Household Department inﬂuence Inner Asian Iskandar jade tribute jadestones junwang Kashgar khojas Khoja Emin Khoja Si Bek Khoqand Khotan Manchu military Ming Dynasty Ming tribute system Moghul Moghul khan Muslim aristocrats Muslim collaborators Muslim merchants Muslim oases Muslim Xinjiang oasis Odui Odui’s ofﬁcer Oirat paper money political proﬁt Qianlong court Qianlong emperor Qing conquest Qing court Qing empire Qing Period Qing rule Qing troops region Samsaq satin Sayyid Hussein sent Shilu signiﬁcant Suﬁ Sultan Suzhou Taiji tribute envoys tribute missions tribute trade Turfan Uyghur Muslims Uyghuristan Wang Wushi Xuande Yarkand Yonggui Yongle Yunus ZGEFL Zhengtong Zunghar Mongols