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his day to be found. In the historical pot easily be defined. It was no longer introduction prefixed by Dr. Rees to his bounded by the tenets of the writers of translation of the Racovian Catechism, I the Old Testament, but amalgamated read~" Those of the Unitarian body with the various hypotheses that had expelled from Poland) who obtained a prevailed amongst the people with whom settlement in Prussia and Brandenburg, their predecessors had resided during were permitted to form churches for their captivity. Unitariav worship, which are yet (1818) We may also notice that their increasiu existence, though not in a very flou- ing numbers induced some to emigrate, rishing condition."
and many to voyage to different counBeing engaged in the composition of tries, whence, on their return, tbey ima work, for the execution of which I re- ported a number of tenets and practices quire accurate information of the state of unknown to their aucestors. Uuitarianism on the Continent, I shall From the Oriental, the Egyptian, the feel exceedingly obliged to any of your Grecian, the Ronan, and the Jewish readers, who may possess or have the philosophers and religionists, had ariseu means of obtaining them, for any details a great diversity of sects. serving to illustrate the statements above Differeuces of opiuion arose in some quoted, or relating to churches or indi. minds from casual impressions, in others viduals now holding Anti-trinitarian sen- from eccentricity of genius, or from abertiments in any of the continental states. ratious of judgment, aud in many instayIf, at the same time, any of your read ces from having to seek after truth in a ers could inform me where I might pro labyrinth of hypotheses, from whose iucure a copy of “ Bock Historia Anti- tricate mazes human judgment was not trinitariorum,” they would render me a easily extricated. On the variety of secservice which might perhaps conduce to tarian opinions it may be remarked, the furtherance of truth. Communica that as each colour may be exhibited iu tions are respectfully requested to be a variety of shades, and as the mixture sent to the Monthly Repository Office, of colours produces novel appearances, addressed to
so the opinions of nen vary more or less PHILOMATH. in different societies, and not unfre
quently amongst the individuals of each
society. In the time of the apostles Mohammed a Reformer of Christianity.
some were of Paul, and some of Apollos, To the Editor.
some of Cephas, and some of Christ. SIR,
Au enumeration of the sects which WHOEVER studies the history of the originated amongst the Jewish and HeaChristian church from a period soon then pouverts would engross too large a after the time of Jesus Christ to the portion of your columps, and the immetime of Mohammed, will be able to trace diate object is to notice that there were the gradual adoption of opinions which those who, either from assuming that do not accord with the doctrines cou) they had acquired, or from their protained in the gospels, por in the history fessing a desire to acquire, wisdom, were of the Acts of the Apostles.
termed Gnostics ; from the several sourPermit me briefly to remind your ces already mentioned, they had derived readers that, prior to the Christian era, their opinions and mixed and mo:elled the Oriental philosophy, inculcating that them as they thought proper. Since the tro powers, one the Author of good, aud apostles were not for a time unanimous the other the author of eril, presided on the couformity of the Gentile conover this world, had become prevalent verts to the Jewish ritual, until Peter, amongst the most civilized nations. by a dream or visiou, became convinced
The Egyptian philosophy blended the that God is no respecter of persons, but Oriental philosophy with the Egyptian that he who doeth righteousness is rightheology.
teous, we may readily couceive that the The Grecian philosophy, and the same Guostic sectarians, become professors of may be said of the Roman philosophy, Christianity, did not totally discard their caunot be termed a distinct system; former opinions and prejudices, but the theories adopted were very dissi- auxiously sought for analogies and simimilar. If some of then were not totally litudes between their former sentimeuts without the light of truth, many were and the tenets of their new religiou. more obscure, and others devoid of all The numerous pames by which the secthat was requisite to afford solace in life, tarians were distinguished rarely convey and consolatiou in death.
accurate information of their respective The philosophy amongst the Jeus can- seutiments; for, as Dr. Musheim ob
serves, “ One sect derived its name from Turkish Piety and Morality. the place where it originated, another
To the Editor. from its Pounder, and another again
Nov. 16, 1830. from some particular tevet or leading
I am sure there is not one of your principle."
readers who would not wish that he Some similar remarks may be made
could feel justified by facts in thinking relative to those who are denominated
as favourably of the Turkish character the FATHERS in the Christian church,
as your correspondent Mr. Yates. As but the present object is to fix the atten- « friends of humanity and civilization," tion of your readers to the dogma held by
they would rejoice to be convinced that some of the Gnostics, and rejected by they have formed a harsher opinion than Mohammed, as coutrary to divine truth.
they are justified in entertaining : and Let those who think unfavourably of the prominent place they hold among Mohammed, say by what charm the de- the advocates of every thing that is libescendants of the Chaldeans, the Persians, ral will acquit them from all suspicion of the Egyptians, and the Indians, were
any sentiment like religious bigotry and indoced to embrace the faith preached intolerance iofluencing their judgment on by the Arabian prophet. If it be ad
this subject. I fear, however, that the mitted that under every system of reli
witnesses “most intelligent and compegion, and by every sect, a great First
tent" are too oumerons to allow charity Cause, a Supreme Divine Power, was
herself to speak in terms of approbation acknowledged by the wisest individuals,
of the “ charitable disposition," in the how came it to pass that such vast num
sense in which Christians are wont to bers desisted from paying religious re
use the expression,) or the “religious verence to any created object? How
sincerity," of the Turks. came it to pass that the Sabeans ceased The following extracts are from the to pay subordinate worship to the starry Travels of R. R. Madden, Esq., iu Torhost, the Persians to the sun, the Egyp- key, Syria, and Egypt, &c., from 1823 to tians to their animals, &c., and the ludians to the several objects of their superstitious veneration, and that, with sparingly brands Mohammed as an ima few exceptions in each case, all may postor or a fanatic. There is no ground be said to concur in the exclamation, God for the supposition that Mohammed anIS ONE, apd Mohammed is the Prophet ofticipated the ultimate result of his miGod!
nistry: an impostor must have had some No true Mohammedan admits that there sinister end in view. That Mohammed are two equal powers, one the author of was actuated by a conscientious desire to good, and the other the author of evil. No propagate what he believed to be true True Mohammedan admits that matter is relative to the Unity of God, ought not eternal, and the only cause of sin. No without proof to be denied. The term true Mohammedan admits that this fanatic is a commonly opprobrious term world was created by two powers ivfe bestowed on persons ardently zealous in rior to the Supreme Power. No true the support of a doctrine pot coinciding Mohammedan admits that the Demiurgus, with our owu. I shall, however, subjoin or Creator of this world, was distinct from an extract from that learued and valuable the DIVINE CREATOR of the universe ; writer, which your readers will consider and although true Mohammedans object an intentional commendation. Dr. Moto some of the opinious of the Jewish sheim, speaking of the opinion relative Doctors respecting the Divine attributes to the governmeut of the universe by two and gorernment, aud consider the divine powers, one the author of good, the other doctrine of JESUS CHRIST to have been the author of evil, says, “ This doctrine mutilated, and its glory shrouded, by the was received throughout a considerable intervention of the errors of Gnosticism part of Asia and Africa, especially a. and other buman conceits, yet all true mougst the Chaldæans, Assyrianss, SyriMohammedans believe the God of the ans, and Egyptians, though with different Jeros, the Gov of the Christians, the God modifications, and had ereu infected the of the Mohammedans, and the Supreme Jews themselves. The Arabians at that Divine Power, which the wisest and best time, and even afterwards, were more of the Heatheus acknowledged, to be One remarkable for strength and courage than and the same eternal source of Wisdom, for geuius and sagacity, por do they GOODNESS, and MBRCY.
seem, according to their own confession, A CHRISTIAN MOSLEM. to have acquired any great reputation for
wisdom and philosophy before the time • I am aware that Dr. Mosheim un- of Mahomet."-E. Hist. Vol. I. p. 84., 1828, and exhibit his opinion of the I found them charitable to the poor, Turkish character after a five years 'resi- attentive to the sick, and kind to ineir dence in these countries, and perhaps a domestics : but I also found them treafreer intercourse with the inhabitants cherous to their enemies, and thankless thay can possibly fall to the lot of travel to their benefactors. Eight cases of poilers who are not of the medical profes- soniug have falley under my observation sion. His work gives sufficient eridence already ; five of these victims I attended, of intelligence and competency for the and in every case the fatal dose did its task of an observer on the opinions and deadly business within eight and forty manners of men, as well as of freedom hours: but in most instances within twelve. from that intolerance which marks the Of all things in Turkey human life is of religious bigot, and from that irascibility the least value; and of all the roads to and impatience which often lead travel honour and ambition, murder is deemed lers to hasty and ungenerous conclu the most secure. I sat beside a Candiote sions.
Turk at dipner, who boasted of having
killed eleven men in cold blood; aud the Description of a Turkish Man of Quality.
society of this assassin was courted by .“ His ipherent hostility to Christianity the cousin of the Reis Efendi, at whose is the first principle of his law, and the house I met him, because he was a perfidy it is supposed to enjoiu is the 'man of courage.'"-Vol. I. pp. 29, 30. most prominent feature of his character :
Turkish Catechism and Morality. I say supposed to enjoiu, for though the Korau inculcates passim, the extermina “ What morals may be expected in a tion of Christians in open warfare, it no people who have such a catechism for where approves of the treachery and in children as the following passages are humanity of which the priesthood make extracted from, is sufficiently obvious : a merit. But persecution is one of the. "• Q. How must religion be proamiable weaknesses of all theologians; moted ? and it would be a folly to stigmatize the "A. By fighting against all who opchurch of Christ with the charge of in pose the Koran till the infidels are cut tolerance, because Calvin, moderate as off from the earth. he was, pursued a theological oppovent “Q. How do you serve your Sultan? even unto death. The most strikingi"A. By making my head his footqualities of the Moslem are his profouud stool; by living and dying at his pleaignoravce, his insuperable arrogance, his sure.' habitual indolenee, and the perfidy which “There are many parts appertaining directs his policy in the divan, and regu- to the Unity of God in this same catelates his ferocity in the field. The defects chismi worthy of a better religion. But in his character are those of the nation; unfortunately, however excellent some they are the growth of sudden greatuess of their doctrines may be, they have but
the intoxication of prosperity enjoyed little influence over their dreadful vices. without reason or restraint. Before I doubt if the cities which once stood on conquest and plunder had exalted the the shores of the Dead Sea, could eren nation on the ruin of other realms, the afford a parallel to the infamy openly Turk was brave in the field, faithful to avowed and practised in the Turkish his friend, and generous to his foe. It metropolis."'--P. 73. was then unusual to commend the cup of poison with a smile, and to beckon
Turkish Treatment of Christiuns. to the murderer with the oath of friend. “In every coroer of the city, a pack ship on his lips : but treachery is now an of hungry dogs are suffered to prowl, for accomplishment in Turkey; and I have the diversion they afford in worrying all seen so much of it for some time past, Frank passengers; and nothing can exthat if my soul were not in some sort ceed the amusement of the Turks when attuned to horrors, I should wish myself they behold a Christian mangled by these in Christendom with no other excite- ferocious animals. I can safely say I mcut than the simple murders of a Sun. have never once passed through the day newspaper."-Pp. 18, 19.
bazaars without having the dogs sct on Turkish Character.
me by the men ; without having stones
pelted at me by the boys ; or being spit “ As to their moral qualities I cannot upon by the women, and cursed as an go to the length of Thornton's commen- Infidel and a Catfre by all. dation, nor of De Tott's abuse. In my “I was very near having a sword put medical relations with them, I had wuch through me for chastising a little rascal to admire and a great deal to condemn, who Aung a stone at my head; and on
another occasion for only looking ivdig. to make a prostitate the companion of nant at a fat lady who spat upon me." his pilgrimage."--Vol. II. p. 211. P. 95.
Many other passages occur in the two « At noon on our return we had an volumes, difficult to be extracted, which adveoture of rather a perilous descrip shew it to be Mr. Maddeo's opinion, that tion, and one which illustrates the bru what he says of the Turkish religious tality of the people towards Christians, character at Cairo, may be considered as however unoffending.
applicable to the Turks generally: “The “We approached the door of a Khan, Dame of the Prophet is in every man's bnilt by Hassan Pacha, to request per. mouth, and the fear of God in few men's mission to repose for half an hour; and hearts." - Vol. I. p. 307. our request was answered by opening the That Mr. Madden was not blind to door of the court yard, and letting out a the moral or religious excellence of the pack of savage dogs on us : in a moment Turks, because it happened to be conwe bad from twenty to five and twenty Dected with the religion of an impostor, famished mongrels springing at our is shewn by the following brief sketch throats; our boots luckily preserved our of the Arab character, and which has feet and legs, but our apparel was soon evidently left a different impression on in Aitters. My friend, the consul, un- his mind : fortunately ran, and had the worst of “The more I see of the Arabs, the the attack; I defended myself as well as more I am convinced they are naturally I coold-sometimes, like the heroes of the kindest-hearted people in the world. Homer, pelting with stones; sometimes, Travellers generally, who pass hastily more unclassically, kicking right and left, through the country, have reason, I and ultimately exhibiting pocket pistols, grant, to complain of their rapacity; but on which the Turks (who had been all travellers, I believe, in every country, this time enjoying our distress) made a not excepting England, are doomed to threatening signal to me to refrain from be the victims of extortion. The misery firing.
of the Arabs, too, often obliges them to “I entreated them repeatedly to call be koaves; but their dishonesty is on so off the dogs; but the more I entreated small a scale, that I uever knew an Arab the more they were amused ; and one 'servant extend a larceny beyond the theft fellow said it was fitting that one dog of a few piastres, or the appropriation of should ratten on another.' Had we been his master's tobacco to his own use. mangled before them, joint by joint, The freedom they take with a traveller's they would have esteemed it a good provisions they account not theft, for joke; and I really at one time thought they are liberal of their own ; it is only we were likely to afford them that the abuse of hospitality which renders an amusement. Luckily for us, a young Arab • profusus sui, appetens alieni.'” man at last interfered, and prevailed ou -Vol. I. p. 369. his inhuman companions, many of whom With regard to the “ steady patriotwere advanced in years, to take off our isin" of the Turks, even their warmest ferocious assailants; and I assure you it advocates can, I presume, say but little was high time, for we were completely when they reflect upon the disastrous worried. I endeavoured to get these issue of their late war with Russia. If rotags puuished; but, as usual, the it formed a feature in their character complaint of a Christian was laughed when Tournefort wrote, they gave no at."-Pp. 141, 142.
evidence of its existence when the armies
of Nicolas were overrunning their terReligious Sincerity of the Turks.
ritories. « The caravan consisted chiefly of pilgrims going to the Holy City, and a vast number of public womeu, professed Alme; On the Rev. F Knowles's Appeal to of these I counted fourteen, and I did
the English Unitariuns on the MarDot see them all. I thought their licen
riage Question tious dances and conversation likely to inspire a very different sort of devotion
To the Editor. from that which pious pilgrims ought to Sir, Warrington, Oct. 6, 1830. feel; but religion is made the pander of This is an admirable little tract, and the vilest passions in Turkey; and the demands the serious attention of the derotee who abandons his wife and Unitarian public. It is evidently written family, and hazards his existence to visit with a pure conscience, and a heart that the shrine of his prophet, scruples not would dread to offend a righteous God
by complying with what the author con- and revolting.' 'A Unitarian is obliged, siders an idolatrous ceremony. Although said Dr. Lushington, 'to utter with his it may contain some eccentric passages, mouth at the altar that which he abhors and occasionally an untenable proposi- in his heart' Such are the testimonies tion, yet what consistent Unitarian can of persons standing high in character gaipsay the remarks on protesting, (a and station, and disiuterested in the custom far better neglected than ob- question. They ought to carry weight served,) or reply to the following extract with thein, and I think they must to from the preface ? " It is a fact that every Unitarian that will reflect." Unitarians condemn the marriage ser hope that some of your readers will vice as being repugnaut to their reli- more fully notice this work, as discussion gious priuciples.' It is equally true that must be of service to the cause of truth with such an impression of its character and holiness. they conform to it; and, moreover, think
L. G. themselves justifiable in so doing. They maintain, then, by their couduct this proposition, that it is right to do that
Sir Walter Scott's Letters on Demonowhich they believe at the same time to
logy and Witchcraft. be opposed to their consciences. They
To the Editor. maintain, or endeavour to maintain, it
Sir, by their words whenever they can be in- In reading the Letters of Sir Walter duced to enter into discussion on the Scott, on Demopology and Witchcraft, subject. But this is very rarely the case; while I have been delighted with the for though the friends of inquiry on abuudance of interesting matter which every other topic, yet on this, inquiry, he has brought together, and generally generally speaking, is their aversion; and edified by the reasonable notions of retheir only solicitude seems to be to seek ligiou which that author seems to entheir justification in silence. Well if tertain, I have been much surprised at they can find it there; or, in its absence, the misapplication made of one passage that lowly spirit of penitence which best of Scripture, common, indeed, in the becomes the erring children of God.”
mouths of the reputedly orthodox, and Should it be maintained that the wlich furnishes couvincing evidence of greater part of Unitarians do not riolate the occasional unfaithfulness of our contheir consciences by complying with the mon version. This passage is Jer. xvii. marriage ceremouy, the writer justly 9, and the manner in which it is introargues that no such view cau be taken duced by our author is this : “ The meof the subject, if we are to judge by their lancholy truth that the human heart is petitions and their complaints in the deceitful above all things and desperately public newspapers and magazines ; and wicked,' is by nothing proved so strongly that consequently it becomes them to re- as by the imperfect sense displayed by flect whether they will any longer obey childreu of the sanctity of moral truth." man rather than God. “ There is also I cannot but regret that our author another strong confirmation of what has should have had the authority of the been advanced, (says this perserering version read in all the churches in faand consistent advocate of the truth,) iu vour of so unworthy and unchristian a the fact, that others who are not Unita- sentimeut. It is scarcely to be supposed rians have admitted the reasonableness
that he can be acquainted with the adof their objections, and the justice of mission of the Lexicographer Parkhurst, their prayer. The Edinburgh Review the bias of whose creed was in the opfor March 1821, says, that 'the esta posite direction. "The Euglish transblishment compels a Unitarian to abjure lation desperately wicked, seems very imhis faith before it will allow hiin to proper. I do uot find that the word ever marry.' " Unitarians are required at denotes wickedness at all.” The renderpresent,' affirmed the Bishop of Worces- ing of Dr. Blayney is, “ The heart is ter, - to join iu a service that implies a wily above all things ; it is even past confession of faith repugnaut to their hope,” I doubt, however, whether he conscientious feelings and opinions. has correctly represented the meaning of • Really this is a most cruel requisition, the sacred writer, and am disposed to observed Lord Holland : “ the Unitarian follow a manuscript numbered 173, by is to be required to repeat words to Kepoicott, corioborated by the ancient which it is avowed the priest annexes Syriac Version, in omitting the conjuncove meaning and he another. It is quite tion and in the passage, so that the clear that such matters must be paivful translation may be, “ Man himself is