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avrw or, perhaps, avrny, according to the same authority; unless Cleanthes be put for the whole sect, as we find Fruge Cleanthea, &c.
“ Quem Diogenes.Babylonius (Cicero, ibid.) consequens in e libro, qui Inscribitur de Alinervá, partum Jovis, ortumque Virginis, ad physiologiam traducens sejunjit a jubula. Aloyevns oli Baluwuocs (page 5. line 14.)
Το περι της. 'Αθηνάς, τον κοσμον γραφει το Δι τον αυτου υπαρχειν, περιέχειν του Δια καθαπερ ανθρωπον ψυχην, και τον Ηλιον μεν 'Απολλω, την δε σεληνην 'Αρτεμιν·
« Jam Apollinis nomen (Cicero, ibid.) est Græcum.; quern solein esse volunt; Dianam autem et Lunam eandem esse putant."
These are coincidences not to be explained, in our judge . ment, by supposing the Greek and the Roman author to have drawn from similar sources of information. Both the accounts of the Stoical opinions are indeed merely brief notices of some of the theological tenets of that sect : but Cicero, fol. lowing in the order of time, follows also, as we have seen, in the arrangement of several parts of his abstract; and the last three passages of the Fragment, supported by another which we observe at line 15. et sequen, page 6. where we see the confirmation of Cicero's remark, Partus Jovis, ortusque Virginis, ad Physiologiam traducitur, et sejungitur a fabula,” almost assure us of the truth of Sir William Drummond's opinion, as ext:acted above.
We decline any more detailed examination of the contents of this unattractive treatise. In many instances, we are disposed to coincide with Mr. Hayter's proposed supplements : giving credit, we mean, to the assertions in his Letter to Sir William Drummond; who declares, in his answer, that he was previously ignorant of the full extent of Mr. H.'s claims to the revision of the Fragment; and that, “ when he published it as read and supplied by the Academicians of Portici, he was not so certain of Mr. Hayter's being the sole corrector and amender of the text, as could have authorized his declaring it upon his own knowledge." -- Indeed, whatever may be the final decisłon of the league atidla, respecting the merits of Mr. H.'s interpolations, we are disposed to applaud the learned and judicious editors of the volume before us, for abstaining from the display of their own conjectural sagacity; and for not encumbering the Fragment with a mass of verbal criticism, which we cannot think that it deserves *. They have done better in at:
* It might assuredly be possible, by even a cursory examination of the fac-similes, to judge of the comparative interests of their sub, jects; and that MS. also should be selected for publication which is least mutilated.
tempting to draw the attention of the scholar to the general subject of the Herculanean MSS.; and in furnishing him with much collateral information on topics which interest all lovers of classical literature. Besides, situated as Sir William Drummond was, we discern a propriety in his leaving to others the task of criticizing the labours of the Academicians of Portici *; whom he then conceived to have been associated with Mr. Hayter in the direction of the business. Sir William by no means supports, as he observes in his answer to Mr. H. published with that gentleman's Letter, the correctness of all the supplied passages : on the contrary, he thinks that many of them are erroneous t: but he could not well appear as the censor on this occasion, when he was under obligations to the Sicilian government for agreeing to part with the fac-similes, and was not less indebted to the Prince of Wales for allowing him to publish a copy of the Fragment. Under these circum*stances, we are clearly of opinion that it would have been indelicate in the editors to have stood forwards as the public accusers of the persons selected by both parties to restore the true readings of the Manuscript. Some slight alterations and verbal objections have indeed been suggested by Sir William ; and, to mention an instance, he properly maintains the allusion to the Ægyptian worship of the Cat, in the lambic line 34, page 10. quoted by the author of the Fragment from a comedy of Timocles. Mr. H., meanwhile, strenuously defends his hexameter – Δυρ' ου βωμος επιτρειψεις, αν αντιλεγουσι:: but, strange and barbarous as such an hexameter is in itself, it is still more strangely connected with the preceding Iambics; and we cannot felicitate Mr. H. on his exclusion of the feline Divinity from the text 1. - Ohe jam satis est : ! - Qualia demens
Egyptus * Mr. H. mentions Rosini, and Foti. The former, now Bishop of Puzzuolo and Capellano Maggiore to Murat ; and the latter, the „respectable Basilian Abhot of that name : but Mr Hayter, it seems, was appointed so'e director by his Sicilian Majesty, in the business of revising and correcting the fac similes taken from the Papyri. - That these originals are lost must be always regretted hy the learned ; and indeed the loss must considerably diminish our interest in the whole subject, since the comparison, mentioned before, as our only certain guide in the resturation of true readings, cancot any farther be insti. tuted.
+ Truly, Mr.H, would be a most miraculous commeutator if they were noe often erroneons. – The Treatise on Music was more free from obliterations in the original MS. than the present Fragment and Mazzochi was not so cautious as Mr. H. in measuring the vacancies.
I 'Abrufoso, as it stands in the Herculanensia, fill the quotation from Timocles, as corrected by Casaubon in Athenzus, was mani
festly Ægyptus portenta colat, or the opinions of Diogenes the Babys lonian on those portentous Deities, cannot detain us any longer.
The Dissertations of Sir W. Drummond and Mr. Walpole; on subjects intimately connected with the Herculanean MSS., and on some more remote but interesting topics of literature, seem to us, comparatively speaking, to be not only the most valuable part of their volume, as well as the chief substance of it, but to form also a positive accession to our stock of classical knowlege ; and, allowing for some errors and inadvertences which we are willing to attribute to haste, and to partial absence from the country in which the book was published, we would say that these dissertations are written in as true a spirit of learning and of genius, as any work which we have had the satisfaction of reviewing for a succession of years.
The first dissertation (written by Sir W. D.) examines the size, population, and political state of the antient city of Herculaneum.
• We cannot (it is observed! doubt of the opulence of this city from its remains; and where there is opulence there must be population.
The statues, the pictures, the vases, the medals, the libraries, the furniture, the numerous articles of luxury and ornament, the houses, the baths, and the spacious theatre, which have been discovered among the ruins of Herculaneum, attest the splendour of the place, and the wealth of its inhabitants. Cicero thus indicated its luxury, and perhaps its corruption, in his oration against Rullus:Accedet eo Mons Gaurus ; accedent salicta ad Minturnas, adjungelur etiam illa via vendibilis Herculanea, multarum deliciarum et magna pecunia, &c.' (page 3.)
We must remark that, by the word " vendibilis,” Cicero alludes to the proposed sales of land under the Agrarian law; although the words, multarum deliciarum, &c. &c. certainly imply more than a public road : but we shall not enter into the author's critical arguments to prove the “ via vendibilis Herculanea” of Cicero to be the city which was subsequently overwhelmed by the volcano. "If we suppose,' he says, 'Herculaneum to have resembled the towns now built over its ruins, these words would be very descriptive. Portici, Resina, and Torre del Greco make a long street; and the form and extent of the town are marked in the expressive phrase of Cicero, as well
festly a false print for Asdcuposo: but still Timocles would be forced to plead the benefit of comic licence for a defect of metre in the worst place of the verse ; and the emendation of Pierson, estoupou, is most probably right. The e dipthong in the third syllable of britpenssy occurs again in the Fragment instead of the i, in the word AquapevtrTES"
This city was
as the venality of its inhabitants. Their venality was to be compulsory : but we will not dwell on this error in the inquiry *; nor make any extracts from the account of the Roman municipia, and the discussion intended to shew that this city had yet a higher rank, and was classed among the colonies' Sir William displays both learning and ingenuity in the support of this latter opinion ; and we are inclined to maintain its justice.
The second Dissertation, on Campania in general, and on that part of it called Felix,' by Mr. Walpole, is the least intaresting of any in the volume. The sum and substance of the whole matter may be stated to be that the greatest breadtla of Campania Felix, from the Mons Tifata to Misenum, is twenty-eight geographical miles ; and that its length from the Pons Campanus to the river Sarnus is twenty-five geographical miles.' This is information. The adjustment of the differences of Cluverius and Camillus Peregrinus, &c. &c. is prolix trilling.
Dissertation III. On the Etymology of Herculaneum.' • I am clearly of opinion, (says Sir Wm. Drummond, page 317) that Herculaneum was so called from Hercules. probably built by the Osci ; and we know that Hercules was wor
* Ovid calls Herculaneum Urbs Herculea, Metam. 15.711. and his description of the line of the coast confirms our subjoined opinion; for we may briefly state that, on an examination of the passage is Cicero, and a comparison of it with the map of Italy, the Orator appears to have given a tolerable exact topographical delineation of the territory which was to be sold under the Agrarian law; and that, if we adopt Sir William Drummond's idea, we must suppose Cicero, in this passage, to mention Herculaneum in conjunction with the marshes of Minturna in Latium, (or at all events at the confines of Campania and Latium,) and with Mount Gaurus in that part of Campania which was adjoining to Cuma. He would, however, rather have mentioned it with Pompeii, Neapolis, Nuceria, and other places, which he enumcrates according to their situation, in another part of his speech. Introducing it with Mount Gaurus and Minturnæ, we conceive him to mean by Via Herculanea what Propertius (iii. 18.) calls Herculeo structa labore Via; what Silius Italicus describes as Herculeum iter ; (xii. 118.) and what Strabo says (lib. 5.) Hercules formed near the Lucrine Lake, namely a road on a mound, of eight stadia in length. This road Cicero calls vendibilis, or saleable, on account of the pleasaut country near it ; namely the Lucrire Lake, and Baiæ, and the numerous villas and places of resort in that neighbourhood. See Statius Sylv. iii. s. In the word Via, (see the note to Cicero, Olivet. in Rull. Orat. 2. C.14.) the Orator implies the places adjacent to the road : as in our own language we have an ana
logous expression in the names of towns and villages, as street-houses, · gate-fulfortb, &c. &c. &c.
shipped shipped by the Etruscans. But the fact which seems to decide the question, is the number of coins which have been found among the ruins, with the head and attributes of Hercules stamped upon them.'
• I have no great difficulty in deciding that Hercul, or Hercules, is derived from the Hebrew words hor, or aor, fire, and chul, or chol, which signifies universal. In allowing for those changes in the sounds of rowels, and of mutable consonants, which may be ob. served in the pronunciation of all languages, we have in the word Hercul, the expression of that mighty and universal fire, which the Pagans adored as the source of heat, of light, and of life, and which exists in all things, and pervades all.'
We have only to say that the Greek 'Hpaxaem; (as in some other cases of Greek derivatives) is here unnoticed : but we are disposed to accord with Sir William in most of his derivations; and, allowing his data to be correct, the just inferences which he draws from them stamp him in the greater number of instances as a very fortunate etymologist.
The IVth Dissertation treats on some Inscriptions found among the ruins of Herculaneum, also by Sir William who intimates in the course of it (where he derives an Etruscan word from the antient Oriental tongues) that he considers the Masoretic punctuation of the Hebrew as of little authority; and in another part of the volume he expresses an intention, whichi we are pleased to see announced, of shortly publishing a grammatical work on some peculiarities of the Hebrew language. At the close of this dissertation, he refers to the plates at the end of the volume :
• In the first (he says) I have given the best fac simile I could of these two Etruscan inscriptions *. In the second my readers may compare the Etruscan alphabet which I have adopted, with those given by former writers and they will judge from these specimens of the extreme difficulty which must occur in reading the Etruscan, Samnite, Volscan, and Oscan characters. The third plate will exhibit letters in various languages ; with which the forms of the Etruscan characters may be compared.'
The Tables of Characters will undoubtedly be very useful, to those who are sufficiently ardent antiquaries to inquire into the scanty remains of the Etruscan language.
Dissertation V., which is the longest and the most attractive, and from which we regret that our limits will not allow us to make any but very brief extracts, discusses an etymological question, whether the names of places in the Campania Felix
* The first is the only Etruscan inscription discovered at Hercula
The second was found on a marble between Pompeii and Herculaneum. Reu.