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Johnson's prompt, and vigorous powers in conversation, and on this ground, of Boswell's Life of him : Burke, he said, agreed with him ; and affirmed, that this work was a greater monument to Johnson's fame, than all his writings put together. — Condemned democracy as the most monstrous of all governments ; because it is impossible at once to act and to control, and consequently the sovereign power, in such a constitution, must be left without any check whatever : regarded that form of government as best, which placed the efficient sovereignty in the hands of the natural aristocracy of a country, subjecting them in its exercise to the control of the people at large. - Descanted largely in praise of our plan of representation ; by which, uncouth and anomalous as it may in many instances appear, and indeed on that very account, such various and diversified interests became proxied in the House of Commons. Our democracy, he acutely remarked, was powerful but concealed, to prevent popular violence ; our monarchy, prominent and ostensi. ble, to provoke perpetual jealousy. — Extolled in warm terms — which he thought as a foreigner (a Scotchman) he might do without the imputation of partiality, for he did not mean to include his own countrymen in the praise-- the characteristic bon naturel, the good temper and sound sense, of the English people ; qualities, in which he deliberately thought us without a rival in any other nation on the globe. - Strongly defended Burke's paradoxical position, that vicc loses its malignancy with its grossness, on the principle, that all disguise is a limitation upon vice. — Stated with much earnestness, that the grand object of his political labours should be first, and above all, to extinguish a false, wretched and fanatical philosophy, which if we did not destroy, would assuredly destroy us ; and then to revive and rekindle that antient genuine spirit of British liberty, which an alarm, partly just and partly abused, had smothered for the present, but which, combined with a providential succession of fortunate occurrences, had rendered us, im better times, incomparably the freest, wisest, and happiest naiion under heaven.'
An anecdote of the late Lord Kenyon is introduced at p. 91. which coincides with such as have before reached our ears :
• Met Mr. I. - Pleased with an anecdote he gave me of Lord Kenyon. A friend of his, sometime since, had sold his Lordship a cottage at Richmond ; and, going down there lately, wished to take a view of the premises : an old house.keeper admitted him': on the table he saw three books ; the Bible - Epicteus and the whole Duty of Man : “ does my Lord read this,” said the Gentleman taking up the Bible? “ No,” said the woman, “ he is always por. ing upon this little book," pointing to Epictetus, “ I don't know what it is ; my lady reade the two others : they come down here of a Saturday evening, with a leg or shoulder of multon ; this serves them the Sunday ; and they leave me the remains.” A Chief Justice of England, thus severely simple in his taste and habits, is at least a curiosity.
The greater number of the author's days are consecrated to literature. He usually reads the popular works of the time,
and revises the public judgment, with the benefit of more deliberate reflection : but he does not always confine himself to modern or recent productions; and he pays a commendable attention to some neglected writers, particularly to Mandeville.
Among the less fortunate criticisms of the author, we class his remarks at p. 106. concerning Burke's treatise on the Sublime and Beautiful. This work, which certainly contains some eloquent passages, is here praised exuberantly: but as a piece of philosophy it is surely of an inferior class; neither clear nor sound : nor is it bottomed on a due knowlege of what others, Hartley for instance, had ascertained on some of the topics in. troduced.-On the other hand, perhaps, we should rank among the happier criticisms, which this volume contains, the depreciating account (at p. 175.) of Blair's Lectures on Rhetoric, which has been rather an over-rated production.
A spirit of the gentleman and of the scholar pervades this Diary, but not always a spirit of courageous originality. As the author* proposes to continue his method of publication, we advise a severer selection of topic. Those books, which are not good enough to preserve much influence, are not worth calling from the tomb for any ordinary observation on their character. We also advise more idiosyncrasy; a freer indulgence of the peculiar genius of the writer, which is advantageously displayed in many paragraphs, but is sometimes too much over-awed by the authority of eminence.
also advis any ordina
tagesence of the
ART. VI. Sketches of the Country, Character, and Costume, of Por.
tugal and Spain, made during the Campaign and on the Route of the British Army in 1808 and 1869. Engraved and coloured from the Drawings by the Rev. Williain Bradford, A, B. of St. John's College, Oxford, Chaplain of Brigade to the Expedition. With incidental Illustration, and appropriate Descriptions of each
Subject. Folio. 71. 76. Boards. Booth. 1809. Chat incidental illástration which occupies a subordinate I place in this splendid publication, and is indeed last men. tioned in the title, affords the only materials which we can purloin for the gratification of our readers. Yet, though we cannot copy drawings or coloured engravings from them, our pen shall not be tardy in doing justice to an amateur artist, who, on a subject which at this moment excites the warmest interest, has employed his pencil to gratify the public curiosity,
• Who appears to be a barrister, see p. 235. and who dates his preface from Ipswich.
by presenting to the eye a number of sketches of the country, character, and costume of that peninsula on which our armies are combating. The scenery in Spain and Portugal is very captivating to the landscape-painter; and a man who could use his pencil, though attached to a military expedition, would not fail to embrace every opportunity of copying into his sketch-book the striking picturesque beauties which these countries are known to present. Mr. Bradford appears to have been diligent as an artist, during the period in which he accompanied the army under Sir John Moore in the capacity of Chaplain of Brigade; and we have no hesitation in stating that, to those who are desirous of forming an exact idea of the features and surface-character of the peninsula, as well as of the dresses of the inhabitants, these plates will be a very grarifying offering. Of their execution we may speak in terms of much praise, since very few of the expensive pictorial works which have come before us can rival the present in beauty of embellishment. It displays,by way of frontispiece, a copper-plate representing the monument erected at Corunna by the Spaniards to the memory of Sir John Moore, and includes 39 coloured acqua-tints from Mr. B.'s drawings; the subjects of which are given in the ensuing enumeration :
* Creek of Maceira - Car of Portuguese Estramadura – Torres Vedras, from the North-West-Peasant of Torres Vedras-Ciutra Ditto, from the Lisbon road - Franciscans -- Lisbon, and the aqueduct of Alcantara-Aqueduct of Alcantara-Portuguese Gentleman - Female of Lisbon in her walking dress — Pass in the mountains between Nisa and Vilha Velha-Peasant boy of Nisa--- Peasant in a straw coat- View on the Tagus near Vilha Velha-Girl of GuardaBishop of Guarda - Peasant of Corregimiento of Salamanca-Ditto of Ditto -- Armed peasant of the Ciudad Rodrigo Militia - The Boleras dance-Salamanca-Doctor of Salamanca --- Student of the Irish college of Salamanca - Joterior of the cathedral of Salamanca - Spanish Lady, with her attendant~ Infant Capuchin - Interior of the Dominican church, Salamanca – Servant girls of Salamanca Aliejos, a village in the plains of Leon-Spanish Courier- Peasants. of Corregimiento of Toro-Toro - Shepherds of the plains of Leon
Castle of Benevente-Pass of Manzanal - Villa Francam Pass near Villa Franca - View near Villa Franca - View between Constantine and Nogales, in the mountains of Gallicia.'
To the letter-press accompanying the plate which concludes this series, Mr. Bradford has subjoined the following note : « This subject is the last which the author had it in his power to take. The increased interest of the army's progress, until their embarkation, after the memorable battle of Corunna, on the 16th January 1809, prevented him from continuing the series, through the remainder of the route.'
As we have remarked at the commencement of this article, the value of the letter-press is far inferior to that of the plates. The notices are indeed very scanty: but, as they are not altogether without interest, we shall venture on transcribing some of the descriptions.
The plate representing the Creek of Maceira has this account subjoined:
« The fleet with the troops under the orders of Lieutenant-General Sir Harry Burrard, came to an anchor in the open sea, off this creek, on the 25th of August 1808.
. As the point of debarkation, the only advantage it appeared to offer was its contiguity to the camp at Ramulhal, where the army had occupied a position after the action of the 21st. With respect to anchorage for the shipping, and protection to the boats in making the shore, it possessed no superiority, and in common with the whole extent of coast from the Douro to the Tagus was exposed to the westwinds, and the surf of the Atlantic,
• Soon after the fleet appeared in sight, cars had been dispatched to this creek to receive supplies of provisions; and they remained two days on the beach, before a boat could be ventured to the shore. At length, the weather becoming more favourable, and the surf abating, the business of landing was commenced, but it was not come pleted without considerable risque and some loss.
The river of Maceira gives a name to this inlet, and here, when swollen by the winter rains, finds a passage into the ocean. In the summer its stream is scarcely perceptible, and being too feeble to make its way through banks of gravel which the surf has opposed to it, terminates in a little pool, and gradually loses itself in the sand.
The first specimen of Portuguese habitations is found in a hamlet through which the road passes, and which is situated a mile and a half from the sea, and at the same distance from Vimiera. This village, which lies directly eastward from the Creek, consists of about a huo. dred houses, built along the side of a hill, in a country partially cultivated, abounding with woods of the pine, of which the gum cistus and myrtle form the underwood, and afford a most agrceable fra
Two views are given of Cintra ; a spot which will be cele brated in history for the singular Convention which there took place, after the battle of Vimiera, between the Commanders of the British and the French forces, August 30, 1808. For picturesque charms, it also stands pre-eminent. The rocks, woods, and habitations are disposed with the most romantic effect; of which the reader may form some idea from Mr. Bradford's description, even though unaccompanied by his copy of the landscape :
• From Torres Vedras to Cintra, the road lies through a series of military posts, and strong passes, and through the village of Mafra, Çelebrated for its magnificent palace and convent, which is justly considered as little inferior to the Escurial. The beauties of the moun. tain and town of Cintra gradually unfold themselves, until at length the traveller descends a hill by the church of St. Sebastian, when the varied charms of this grand scenery open upon the view. The bold outline of the mountain is from this point visible to a considerable extent. Its prodigious breaks and cavities, the numerous villas built along its declivity, amidst orange and lemon groves, and woods of forest trees, produce a landscape rarely equalled in picturesque character.
. Among the principal villas which claim distinction, as to site and building, is one belonging to the Marquis Marialva, but it is at present unoccupied. Another, little inferior, and famous for its gardens, is the property of the Marquis Pombal. A spacious hotel, beautifully situated, looking over the town to the Atlantic, under the management of an Irish woman, furnishes excellent accommodation, and is an object by no means devoid of interest to an English traveller.
The town contains about a thousand houses, three conyents, and a palace, built by Don Emanuel, but now much neglected and going to decay. The most surprising monument of the royal founder's piety is a convent of Jeronomites, erected on the highest ridge of the mountain. Its elevation is said to be three thousand feet above the level of the sea.
• On an abrupt point of the rock, not far from this monastery, are scen the ruins of a Moorish fortress, in which is a well-supplied reservoir of water. At the foot of the mountain, are some remains of an ancient Roman temple; which, from some dedicatory inscriptions found among the ruins, and a similarity between the words Cynthia and Cintra, has given risc to the conjecture that the latter name is a corruption of the former. This opinion is, however, unsupported by any authority. A road, shaded by chesnut and cork trees, leads along the side of the mountain to Cascacs. A few hundred yards to the right is a fine mansion, built on a steep part of the rock, commanding an extensive view of the ocean, and the mouth of the Tagus. No part of this mountain affords a more delightful prospect ; but this residence, and many others, which adorn its side, are now abandoned, and in ruins. A little further on the road towards Cascaes, there is a path to the left which leads to a convent of Capuchins, known by the name of the Cork Convent. This monastery is partly hewn out of the rock, and partly formed by projecting masses of the mountain, presenting a very uncouth appearance, which the stranger does not perceive to be a dwelling, until he arrives at the steps of the convent, Such materials as its immediate vicinity afforded were alone employed in the construction of its furniture and ornaments. Beds, chairs, and tables are made from blocks of stoné, or cork ; and the latter substance, cut into various figures, forms the decoration of the door and altar.
• The society consists of eighteen monks of the order of St. Francis, whose revenue is principally derived from elecmosynary contributions,
• Cintra is situated seventeen miles to the north-West ward of Lisbon. The mild temperature of its climate, and the charms of its situation, have long rendered it the favourite resort of English invalids.'