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spirits, and the author as well as object of all divine knowledge, faith and worship, who only doth enlighten the mind, and persuade and convince the understandings of people, I do hereby grant and declare, that no person or persons, inhabiting in this province or territories, who shall confess and acknowledge one Almighty God, the creator, upholder and ruler of the world, and profess him or themselves obliged to live quietly under the civil government, shall be in any case molested or prejudiced in his or their person or estate, because of his or their conscientious persuasion or practice, nor be compelled to frequent or maintain any religious worship-place, or ministry, contrary to his or their mind, or to do or suffer any other act or thing, contrary to their religious persuasion.
And that all persons who also profess to believe in Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world, shall be capable (notwithstanding their other persuasions and practices in point of conscience and religion) to serve this government in any capacity, both legislatively and executively, he or they solemnly promising, when lawfully required, allegiance to the king as sovereign, and fidelity to the proprietary and governor, and ta. king the attests, as now established by the law made at New-Castle, in the year one thousand seven hundred, entituled An Act directing the attests of several officers and ministers, as now amended and confirmed this present assembly.
Secondly. For the well governing of this province and territories, there shall be an Assembly yearly chosen, by the freemen thereof, to consist of four persons out of each county, of most note for virtue, wisdom and ability, (or of a greater number at any time, as the Governor and Assembly shall agree,) upon the first day of October for ever; and shall sit on the fourteenth day of the same month, in Philadelphia, unless the Governor and council for the time being shall see cause to appoint another place within the said province or territories; which Assembly shall have power to choose a speaker and other their officers; and shall be judges of the qualifications and elections of their own members; sit upon their own adjournments; appoint committees; prepare bills in order to pass into laws; impeach criminals, and redress grievances; and shall have all other powers and privileges of an Assembly, according to the rights of the free-born subjects of England, and as is usual in any of the King's plantations in America.
And if any county or counties shall refuse or neglect to choose their respective representatives as aforesaid, or, if chosen, do not meet to serve in Assembly, those who are so chosen and met shall have the full power of the Assembly, in as ample a manner as if all the representatives had been chosen and inet, provided they are not less than two thirds of the whole number that ought to meet.
And that the qualifications of electors and elected, and all other matters and things relating to elections of representatives to serve in Assemblies, though not herein particularly expressed, shall be and remain as by a law of this government, made at New-Castle in the year one thousand seven hundred, entituled An Act to ascertain the number of members of Assembly, and to regulate the elections.
Thirdly. That the freemen in each respective county, at the time and place of meeting for electing their representatives to serve in As. sembly, may, as often as there shall be occasion, choose a double number of persons to present to the Governor for sheriffs and coroners, to
serve for three years, if they so long behave themselves well; out of which respective elections and presentments, the Governor shall nominate and commissionate one for each of the said offices, the third day after such presentinent, or else the first named in such presentment, for each office as aforesaid, shall stand and serve in that office for the time before respectively limited ; and in case of death or defaults, such vacancies shall be supplied by the Governor, to serve to the end of the said term.
Provided always, That if the said freemen shall at any time neglect or decline to choose a person or persons for either or both the aforesaid offices, then, and in such case, the persons that are or shall be in the respective offices of sheriff or coroner, at the time of election, shall remain therein, until they shall be removed by another election as aforesaid.
And that the justices of the respective counties shall or may nominate and present to the Governor three persons, to serve for clerk of the peace for the said county, when there is a vacancy, one of which the Governor shall commissionate within ten days after such present. ment, or else the first nominated shall serve in the said office during good behaviour.
Fourthly. That the laws of this government shall be in this style, viz. By the Governor, with the consent and approbation of the freemen in General Assembly met; and shall be, alter confirmation by the Governor, forthwith recorded in the rolls-office, and kept at Philadelphia, unless the Governor and Assembly shall agree to appoint another, place.
Fifthly. That all criminals shall have the same privileges of witnesses and counsel as their prosecutors.
Sixthly. That no person or persons shall or may, at any time hereafter, be obliged to answer any complaint, matter or thing whatsoever, relating to property, before the Governor and Council, or in any other place but in the ordinary courts of justice, unless appeals thereunto shall be hereafter by law appointed.
Seventhly. That no person within the government shall be licensed by the Governor to keep an ordinary, tavern or house of public entertainment, but such who are first recommended to him, under the hands of the justices of the respective counties signed in open court; which justices are and shall be hereby empowered to suppress and forbid any person keeping such public house as aforesaid, upon their misbehaviour, on such penalties as the law doth or shall di. rect; and to recommend others from time to time, as they shall see occasion.
Eighthly. If any person, through temptation or melancholy, shall destroy himself, his estate, real and personal, shall notwithstanding descend to his wife and children, or relations, as if he had died a natural death ; and if any person shall be destroyed or killed by casualty or accident, there shall be no forfeiture to the Governor by reason thereof.
And no act, law or ordinance whatsoever, shall at any time hereafter be made or done, to alter, change or diminish the form or effect of this charter, or of any part or clause therein, contrary to the true intent and meaning thereof, without the consent of the Governor for the time being, and six parts of seven of the Assembly mct.
But because the happiness of mankind depends so much upon the enjoying of liberty of their consciences as aforesaid, I do hereby solemnly declare, promise and grant, for me, my heirs and assigns, that the first article of this charter, relating to liberty of conscience, and every part and clause therein, according to the true intent and meaning thereof, shall be kept and remain, without any alterations inviolably forever.
And lastly, I, the said William Penn, Proprietary and Governor of the province of Pennsylvania, and territories thereunto belonging, for myself, my heirs and assigns, have solemnly declared, granted and confirmed, and do hereby solemnly declare, grant and confirm, that neither I, my heirs or assigns, shall procure or do any thing or things, whereby the liberties in this charter contained and expressed, nor any part thereof, shall be infringed or broken: And if any thing shall be procured or done by any person or persons, contrary to these presents, it shall be held of no force or effect.
In witness whereof, I, the said William Penn, at Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania, have unto this present charter of liberties set iny hand and broad seal, this twenty-eighth day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and one, being the thirteenth year of the reign of king William the third over England, Scotland, France and Ireland, &c, and in the twenty-first year of my government.
Aad notwithstanding the closure and test of this present charter as aforesaid, I think fit to add this following proviso thereunto, as part of the same, that is to say: That notwithstanding any clause or clauses in the above mentioned charter, obliging the province and territories to join together in legislation, I am content, and do hereby declare, that if the representatives of the province and territories shall not hereafter agree to join together in legislation, and that the same shall be signified to me, or my deputy, in open assembly, or otherwise from under the hands and seals of the representatives, for the time being, of the province or territories, or the major part of either of them, any time within three years from the date hereof, that in such case the inhabitants of each of the three counties of this province shall not have less than eight persons to represent them in assembly for the province: and the inhabitants of the town of Philadelphia (when the said town is incorporated) two persons to represent them in assembly; and the inhabitants of each county in the territories shall have as many persons to represent them in distinct assembly for the territories, as shall be requested by them as aforesaid.
Notwithstanding which separation of the province and territories, in respect of legislation, I do hereby promise, grant and declare, That the inhabitants of both the province and territories shall separately enjoy all other liberties, privileges and benefits, granted jointly to them in this charter, any law, usage or custoin of this government heretofore made and practised, or any law made and passed by this general assembly, to the contrary hereof notwithstanding.
This Charter of Privileges being distinctly read in Assembly,
and the whole and every part thereof being approved of and agreed to by us, we do thankfully receive the same from our Proprietary and Governor, at Philadelphia, this twenty-eighth
day of October, one thousand seven hundred and one. Signed,
JOSEPH GROWDEN, Speaker.
delphin, in Patent Book A, vol. II, n age 125 to 129, the 31st of the eighth month, 1701, by me,
THOMAS STORY, MASTER IDEM,
Proceedings of the Provincial Conference of committees of the Proyince
of Pennsylvania, held at Carpenter's Hall, in Philadelphia, began June 18th, and continued by adjournments to June 25th, 1776.
TUSEDAY, June 18, 1776. This day a number of gentlemen met at Carpenter's Hall, in Philadelphia, being deputed by the committees of several of the counties of this province, to join in provincial conference, in consequence of a circular letter from the committee of the city and liberties of Philadel. phia, inclosing the resolution of the continental congress of the 15th of May last.
Col. M'Kean, as chairman of the city committee, declared the motives which had induced that committee to propose the holding of the present conference, and then laid on the table, a certificate of deputies appointed to attend on the part of said committee.
Returns were also given in, from the nties of Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, Berks, Northampton, York, Cumberland, Bedford and Westmoreland, by the deputies of said counties, by which it ap: peared the following gentlemen were appointed, viz.
For the committee of the city of Philadelphia.
Mr. William Lowman,
Dr. Benjamin Rush,
Mr. Jacob Shriner,
Cap. Sharp Delaney,
Major John Cox,
Cap. Benjamin Loxley,
Cap. Samuel Brewster,
Cap. Joseph Blewer,
Mr. William Robinson,
Cap. Jonathan B. Smith,
Mr. James Milligen.
For the committee of Philadelphia county. Col. Henry Hill,
Major James Potts, Col. Robert Lewis,
Major Robert Loller, Dr. Enoch Edwards,
Mr Joseph Mather, *Col. William Hamilton, Mr. Matthew Brooks, Col. John Bull,
*Mr. Edward Bartholomew. Col. Frederick Antis,
For the committee of Bucks county. John Kidd, Esq.
Col. Joseph Hart, Maj. Henry Wynkoop,
Mr. Benjamin Segle. Mr. James Wallace,
For the committee of Chester county. Col. Richard Thomas,
Col. Hugh Loyd, Maj. William Evans,
Richard Reiley, Esq. Col Thomas Hockley,
Col. Evan Evans, Major Caleb Davis,
Col. Lewis Grono, Elisha Price, Esq.
Major Sketchley Morton, Mr. Samuel Fairlamb,
Cap. Thomas Levis. Col. William Montgomery,
For the committee of Lancaster county. William Atlee, Esq.
Mr. Williani Brown, Mr. Lodowick Lowinan,
Mr. John Smiley, Col. Bartram Galbraith,
Major James Cunningham, Col. Alexander Lowrey,
Major David Jenkins. Cap. Andrew Graaf,
For the committee of Berks county. Col. Jacob Morgan,
Col. Daniel Hunter, Col. Henry Haller,
Col. Valentine Eakerd, Col. Mark Bird,
Col. Nicholas Lutz, Dr. Bodo Otto,
Cap. Joseph Hiester,
Mr. Charles Shoemaker.
Nicholas Depue, Esq.
Mr. David Deshler,
M. Benjamin Dupue.
Col. Henry Slagle,
Mr. James Egar, Col. Richard M'Alister,
Mr. John Hay, Col. David Kennedy,
Cap. Joseph Read. Col. William Rankin,
For the committee of Cimberland county. Mr. James M’Lane,
Dr. John Colhoon, Col. John Allison,
Mr. John Creigh, John M'Clay, Esq.
Mr. Hugh M'Cormick, William Elliot, Esq.
Mr. John Harris,
Mr. Hugh Alexander.
Samuel Davidson, Esq.
For the committee of Westmoreland county Mr. Edward Cook,
Mr. James Perry.