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24. That all lands and goods of felons shall be liable to make satisfaction to the party wronged twice the value ; and for want of lands or goods, the felons shall be bond-men, to work in the common prison or work-house, or otherwise, till the party injured be satisfied.

25. That the estates of capital offenders, as traitors and murderers, shall go, one-third to the next of kin to the sufferer, and the remainder to the next of kin to the criminal.

26. That all witnesses, coming or called to testify their knowledge in or to any matter or thing in any court, or before any lawful authority within the said province, shall there give or deliver in their evidence or testimony, by solemnly promising to speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, to the matter or thing in question. And in case aný person so called to evidence, shall be convicted of wilful falsehood, such person shall suffer and undergo such damage or penalty, as the person or persons against whom he or she bore false witness did or shoulil undergo; and shall also make satisfaction to the party wrong. ed, and be publicly exposed as a false witness, never to be credited in any court or before any magistrate, in the said province.

27. And to the end that all officers chosen to serve within this province

may with more care and diligence answer the trust reposed in them, it is agreed, That no such person shall enjoy more than one pub. lic office at one time.

28. That all children within this province, of the age of twelve years, shall be taught some useful trade or skill, to the end none may be idle, but the poor may work to live, and the rich, if they become poor, may not want.

29. That servants be not kept longer than their time, and such as are careful be both justly and kindly used in their service, and put in fitting equipage at the expiration thereof, according to custom.

30. That all scandalous and malicious reporters, backbiters, defamers, and spreaders of false news, whether against magistrates or private persons, shall be accordingly severely punished, as enemies to the peace and concord of this province.

31. That for the encouragement of the planters and traders in this province, who are incorporated into a society, the patent granted to them by William Penn, Governor of the said province; is hereby ratified and confirmed,


33. That all factors or correspondents in the said province, wronging their employers, shall make satisfaction, and one-third over, to their said employers: And in case of the death of any such factor or correspondent, the committee of trade shall take care to secure so much of the deceased party's estate, as belongs to his said respective employers.

34. "That all Treasurers, Judges, Masters of the Rolls, Sheriffs, Justices of the peace, and other officers and persons whatsoever relating to courts or trials of causes, or any other service in the government; and all members elected to serve in Provincial Council and General Assembly, and all that have right to elect such members, shall be such as profess faith in Jesus Christ, and that are not convicted of ill fame, or unsober and dishonest conversation, and that are of one and twenty years of age at least; and that all such, so qualified, shall be capable of the said several employments and privileges as aforesaid,

35. That all persons living in this province, who confess and acknowledge the one Almighty and eternal God to be the creator, upholder and ruler of the world, and that hold themselves obliged in conscience to live peaceably and justly in civil society, shall in no ways be molested or prejudiced for their religious persuasion or practice in matters of faith and worship, nor shall they be compelled at any time to frequent or maintain any religious worship-place or ministry whatever.

36. That, according to the good example of the primitive Christians, and for the ease of the creation, every first day of the week called the Lord's Day, people shall abstain from their cominon daily labour, that they may the better dispose themselves to worship God, according to their understandings.

37. That as careless and corrupt administration of justice draws the wrath of God upon magistrates, so the wildness and looseness of the people provoke the indignation of God against a country: Therefore, that all such offences against God, as swearing, cursing, lying, profane talking, drunkenness, drinking of healths, obscene words, in. cest, sodomy, rapes, whoredom, fornication and other uncleanness, not to be repeated; all treasons, misprisions, murders, duels, felonies, seditions, maims, forcible entries, and other violences to the persons and estates of the inhabitants within this province; all prizes, stage plays, cards, dice, may-games, masques, revels, bull-baitings, cock-fightings, bear-baitings, and the like, which excite the people to rudeness, cruelty, looseness and irreligion, shall be respectively discouraged, and severely punished, according to the appointment of the Goveroor and freemen in Provincial Council and General Assembly, as also all proceedings contrary to these laws that are not here made expressly penal.

38. That a copy of these laws shall be bung up in the Provincial Council, and in public courts of justice, and ibat they shall be read yearly, at the opening of every Provincial Council and General Assembly, and courts of justice, and their assent shall be testified by their standing up after the reading thereof.

39. That there shall be at no time any alteration of any of these laws, without the consent of the Governor, bis heirs or assigns, and six parts of seven of the freemen, met in Provincial Council and General Assembly.

40. That all other matters and things not herein provided for, which shall and may concern the public justice, peace or safety of the said province, and the raising and imposing taxes, customs, duties, or other charges whatsoever, shall be and are hereby referred to the order, prudence and determination of the Governor and freemen in Provincial Council and General Assembly, to be held from time to time in the said province.

Signed and sealed by the Governor and freemen aforesaid, the

fifth day of the third month, called May, one thousand six hundred and eighty-two.

Chapter IV.

The CHARTER of PRIVILEGES granted by William Penn, Esq.

to the inhabitants of Pennsylvania and territories. WILLIAM PENN, Proprietary and Governor of the province of Pennsylvania and territories therunto belonging, to all to whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting-Whereas King Charles the second, by his letters patents, under the great seal of England, bearing date the fourth day of March, in the year one thousand six hundred and eighty, was graciously pleased to give and grant unto me, my heirs and assigns, for ever, this province of Pennsylvania, with divers great powers and jurisdictions for the well government thereof.

And whereas the King's dearest brother, James Duke of York and Albany, &c. by his deeds of feoftiment, under his hand and seal duly perfected, bearing date the twenty-fourth day of August, one thousand six hundred eighty and two, did grant unto me, my heirs and assigns, all that tract of land, now called the territories of Pennsylvania, together with powers and jurisdictions for the good government thereof.

And whereas, for the encouragement of all the freemen and planters that might be concerned in the said province and territories, and for the good guvernment thereof, I, the said William Penn, in the year one thousand six bundred eighty and three, for me, my beirs and assigns, did grant and confirm unto all the freemen, planters and adventurers therein, divers liberties, franchises and properties, as by the said grant, entituled, The frame of the government of the province of Pennsylvania, and territories thereunto belonging in America, may appear; which charter or frame being found, in some parts of it, not so suitable to the present circumstances of the inhabitants, was, in the third month, in the year one thousand seven hundred, delivered up to me, by six parts of seven of the freemen of this province and territories in General Assembly met, provision being made in the said charter for that end and purpose:

And whereas I was then pleased to promise, that I would restore the said charter to them again, with necessary alterations, or, in lieu thereof, give them another, better adapted to answer the present circumstances and conditions of the said inhabitants; which they have now, by their Representatives in General Assembly met at Philadelphia, requested me to grant.

KNOW ye therefore, that for the further well being and good gov: ernment of the said province and territories, and in pursuance of the rights and powers before mentioned, I, the said William Penn, do declare, grant and confirm, unto all the freemen, planters and adventurers, and other inhabitants in this province and territories, these following liberties, franchises and privileges, so far as in me lieth, to be held, enjoyed and kept, by the freemen, planters and adventurers, and other inhabitants of and in the said province and territories there. unto annexed, forever.

First. Because no people can be truly happy, though under the greatest enjoyment of civil liberties, if abridged of the freedom of their consciences, as to their religious profession and worship: And Al. mighty God being the only Lord of conscience, father of lights and

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spirits, and the author as well as object of all divine knowledge, faith and worship, who only doth enlighten the mind, and persuade and convince the understandings of people, I do hereby grant and declare, that no person or persons, inhabiting in this province or territories, who shall confess and acknowledge one Almighty God, the creator, upholder and ruler of the world, and profess him or themselves obliged to live quietly under the civil government, shall be in any case molested or prejudiced in his or their person or estate, because of his or their conscientious persuasion or practice, nor be compelled to frequent or maintain any religious worship-place, or ministry, contrary to his or their mind, or to do or suffer any other act or thing, contrary to their religious persuasion.

And that all persons who also profess to believe in Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world, shall be capable (notwithstanding their other per. suasions and practices in point of conscience and religion) to serve this government in any capacity, both legislatively and executively, he or they solemnly promising, when lawfully required, allegiance to the king as sovereign, and fidelity to the proprietary and governor, and ta. king the attests, as now established by the law made at New-Castle, in the year one thousand seven hundred, entituled An Act directing the attests of several officers and ministers, as now amended and confirmed this present assembly.

Secondly. For the well governing of this province and territories, there shall be an Assembly yearly chosen, by the freemen thereof, to consist of four persons out of each county, of most note for virtue, wisdom and ability, (or of a greater number at any time, as the Governor and Assembly shall agree,) upon the first day of October for ever; and shall sit on the fourteenth day of the same month, in Philadelphia, unless the Governor and council for the time being shall see cause to appoint another place within the said province or territories; which Assembly shall have power to choose a speaker and other their officers ; and shall be judges of the qualifications and elections of their own members; sit upon their own adjournments; appoint committees; prepare bills in order to pass into laws; impeach criminals, and redress grievances; and shall have all other powers and privileges of an Assembly, according to the rights of the free-born subjects of England, and as is usual in any of the King's plantations in America.

And if any county or counties shall refuse or neglect to choose their respective representatives as aforesaid, or, if chosen, do not meet to serve in Assembly, those who are so chosen and met shall have the full power of the Assembly, in as ample a manner as if all the representatives had been chosen and inet, provided they are not less than two thirds of the whole number that ought to meet.

And that the qualifications of electors and elected, and all other matters and things relating to elections of representatives to serve in Assemblies, though not herein particularly expressed, shall be and remain as by a law of this government, made at New-Castle in the year one thousand seven hundred, entituled An Act to ascertain the number of members of Assembly, and to regulate the elections.

Thirdly. That the freemen in each respective county, at the time and place of meeting for electing their representatives to serve in As. sembly, may, as often as there shall be occasion, choose a double number of persons to present to the Governor for sheriffs and coroners, to

serve for three years, if they so long behave themselves well; out of which respective elections and presentments, the Governor shall nominate and commissionate one for each of the said offices, the third day after such presentinent, or else the first named in such presentment, for each office as aforesaid, shall stand and serve in that office for the time before respectively limited; and in of death defaults, such vacancies shall be supplied by the Governor, to serve to the end of the said term.

Provided always, That if the said freemen shall at any time neglect or decline to choose a person or persons for either or both the aforesaid offices, then, and in such case, the persons that are or shall be in the respective offices of sheriff or coroner, at the time of election, shall remain therein, until they shall be removed by another election as aforesaid.

And that the justices of the respective counties shall or may nomi- . nate and present to the Governor three persons, to serve for clerk of the peace for the said county, when there is a vacancy, one of which the Governor shall commissionate within ten days after such presentment, or else the first nominated shall serve in the said office during good behaviour.

Fourthly. That the laws of this government shall be in this style, viz. By the Governor, with the consent and approbation of the freemen in General Assembly met; and shall be, after confirmation by the Governor, forthwith recorded in the rolls-office, and kept at Philadelphia, unless the Governor and Assembly shall agree to appoint another place.

Fifthly. That all criminals shall have the same privileges of witnesses and counsel as their prosecutors.

Sixthly. That no person or persons shall or may, at any time hereafter, be obliged to answer any complaint, matter or thing whatsoever, relating to property, before the Governor and Council, or in any other place but in the ordinary courts of justice, unless appeals thereunto shall be hereafter by law appointed.

Seventhly. That no person within the government shall be licensed by the Governor to keep an ordinary, tavern or bouse of public entertainment, but such who are first recommended to him, under the hands of the justices of the respective counties signed in open court; which justices are and shall be hereby empowered to suppress and forbid any person keeping such public house as aforesaid, upon their misbehaviour, on such penalties as the law doth or shall di. rect; and to recomiend others from time to time, as they shall see occasion.

Eighthly. If any person, through temptation or melancholy, shall. destroy himself, his estate, real and personal, shall notwithstanding descend to his wife and children, or relations, as if he had died a na. tural death; and if any person shall be destroyed or killed by casualty or accident, there shall be no forfeiture to the Governor by reason thereof.

And no act, law or ordinance whatsoever, shall at any time hereafter be made or done, to alter, change or diminish the form or effect of this charter, or of any part or clause therein, contrary to the true intent and meaning thereof, without the consent of the Governor for the tine being, and six parts of seven of the Assembly mct.

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