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rude and broken. On the south is a very fine door with a high Gothic canopy, but the crumbling nature of the stone has done much to annihilate its sculpture.
The Interior is most beautiful. The roof is richly coloured, and the long lines of intensely tall pillars end in an apse with long lancet windows filled by brilliant stained glass, which, as well as that in the side-windows, is due to the Dominican monk, William of Marseilles, 1530. The simplicity of the lines is seldom broken, and only by objects of the rarest beauty.
Right. Tomb of Gregory X., 1276, by Margaritone, and further on, a sarcophagus containing the remains of Arretine saints collected by Bishop Albergotti. Above, is a fresco of the Crucifixion with saints.
High Altar. The magnificent Shrine of S. Donato, made, 1264, for Bishop Ubertini, by Giovanni Pisano.
'During the persecution of the Christians under Julian the Apostate, S. Donato fled from Rome to Arezzo, of which he became bishop and after his death patron saint. As he stood one day, according to the legend, before the altar, with a sacramental cup in his hand, some rude Pagans attacked him and shattered it to fragments, which he miraculously reunited, without losing a drop of its contents. Transported with fury at this sight, the aggressors seized the unoffending prelate, and hurried him away to death. The Gothic shrine which Giovanni Pisano designed and sculptured in honour of this martyr is oblong in shape, and richly adorned with statuettes, leaves, arabesques, intaglios, enamels, and bas-reliefs. Above the altar, which occupies the front of the shrine, and beneath a canopy supported by angels, sits the Madonna smiling tenderly upon the Infant Saviour, whose head rests upon her shoulder. On either side of this really pleasing group are statuettes of SS. Donato and Gregory, and in the gable above, three reliefs representing the Marriage of the Virgin, the Annunciation, and the Assumption. The most striking amongst the numerous bas-reliefs with which the three other sides of the shrine are covered, is that in which the saint's body lies stretched upon a funeral couch, surrounded by his devoted and deeply grieving followers, one of whom leans over to lift the lifeless hand so often raised in blessing or in prayer, while the rest are kneeling in supplication. Around the top of the shrine runs a row of Gothic arches (filled in with half figures of apostles and prophets) which are invaluable as giving an air of lightness to the massive structure. This superb work of art, including enamels, some silver bas-reliefs, and jewels hung around the Madonna's neck, cost no less than 30,000 florins.'—Perkins's ' Tuscan Sculptors.'
'Left of High Altar. The splendid tomb, by Agostino di Giovanni
and Agnolo di Ventura, of Guido Tarlati, the military prince-bishop of Arezzo, who when deposed and excommunicated, placed the iron crown of Lombardy on the head of the Emperor Louis of Bavaria in Milan Cathedral, May 30, 1327, but having afterwards lost the Emperor's favour, declared him excommunicated and became himself reconciled to the Church. The monument is dated 1330 and signed.
'The history of a prelate who, leaving mass and mitre, often donned the helmet, and led his troops in person to the battle-field, offered a rich series of subjects for sculptural treatment. Adopting the Pisan type, the sculptors placed the sarcophagus, with its recumbent effigy exposed to view by curtain-drawing angels, under a lofty Gothic canopy, and with novel effect disposed below it sixteen bas-reliefs, in which they represented the sieges and battles of Bishop Tarlati with much spirit and action. Though rudely sculptured, many of these are extremely well composed, and show feeling and power of expression. For instance, in that inscribed Caprena, there is an excellent group of knights on horseback entering a walled city, and in that which represents Tarlati's death, the figures of the attendants, one of whom throws out his arms in grief, while another tears his hair in despair, are dramatically conceived. The Giottesque treatment visible throughout is proof of the influence of Giotto upon these artists, though it does not warrant Vasari's statement that he designed them.'—Perkins's 'Tuscan Sculptors'
In the Via Sasso Verde, which opens (right) out of the Via Ricasoli, near the Cathedral, is (No. 12) the Palazzo Capel de Ferro, which contains the Pinacoteca Bartolini, open from 10 to 3 (50 c.). We may notice—
Pietro Lorenzetti. Madonna between SS. John Baptist, Matthew,
Id. S. Gaudenzio.
Parri Spinello. Madonna del Mantello.
Id. Madonna Camajani.
Id. Madonna in Glory.
Id. S. John Baptist.
Rosso Fiorentino. The Bearing of the Cross.
Bart. della Gatta. S. Roch.
Luca Signorelli. The Virgin throned in glory amid cherubs, with God the Father above in benediction. Below are S. Donato with S. Jerome, and S. Stephen with Niccolo Gamurrini, introduced by S. Niccolo, his patron saint. In front is David, and in the background two prophets in adoration. This important picture was painted in 1520 for the Compagnia di S. Girolamo, half the price being paid by Master Niccolo Gamurrini.
'This picture was carried from Cortona to Arezzo on the shoulders of men belonging to the company it was painted for; and Luca, old as he was, insisted on coming over to put it up, as well as partly to see his friends and relatives again. And, inasmuch as he staid at the house of the Vasari, where I was then a little child of eight, I can remember how that good old man, all graciousness and politeness as he was, heard from the master who had to teach me my letters that I minded nothing in school except scribbling likenesses. I remember how he turned to Antonio, my father, and said, "Antonio, since little George won't learn his letters, still drawing, although it might be no use, would at all events be a credit and satisfaction to him, as to any other gentleman." And with that he turned to me, as I stood there opposite to him, and said, "Mind your lessons, little kinsman." He said a great many more things of me which I won't repeat, for my conscience tells me that I am a long way from having fulfilled the opinion that good old man had of me. And because they told him, what was the truth, that at that time I was subject to bleedings of the nose so violent that I sometimes fainted from them, he put a key on my neck with his hand in a manner infinitely affectionate; and that recollection of Luca will always remain fixed in my mind. When the picture was set in its place, he went off to Cortona again, and was accompanied on his way by a number of citizens, as was no less than his due, for he had always lived more like a loid and an honoured gentleman than a painter.'— Vasari.
Id. Madonna with SS. Margaret, M. Magdalen, Francis, and
Returning to S. Maria della Pieve, behind the church, is the exceedingly picturesque Piazza Grande, in the centre of which stands a statue of Ferdinand III. by Stefano Ricci. The brown apse of the church with its pillared arcades overhangs a fountain. Beside this is the charming Palace of the Confraternity della Misericordia, dating from the 14th century. The lunette over the door contains a Pieta in fresco by Jacopo di Casentino, and, above, a relief of the Madonna and Saints by Niccolb Aretino. On the first floor is The Museum, containing an interesting local collection of fossil bones, ancient inscriptions, 250 precious 16th-century majolica vases, and many specimens of the beautiful red ware of Roman Arretium praised by Pliny.1
'It is of very fine clay, of a bright coral hue, adorned with reliefs, rather of flowers than of figures, and bearing the maker's name at the bottom of the vase. In form, material, decoration, and style of art, it is so totally unlike the produce of any Etruscan necropolis, that it scarcely needs the Latin inscriptions to mark its origin. Indeed, though it were too much to assert that the Etruscans never formed such a ware, it is clear that all hitherto found is of Roman manufacture.'— Dennis.
Returning down the Via Cavour, we find, left, the Church of S. Francesco, containing a number of important frescoes.
Entrance wall. Last Supper. Fourteenth century.
Choir, entirely painted by Piero della Francesco, with the story of the True Cross.
'When Adam lay in his death-sickness, he sent Seth to Paradise to beg for some of the oil of the tree of mercy. The Archangel Michael replied, that the oil of the tree of mercy could not be given to men for the space of six thousand years; but, instead, he gave to Seth a wand, which he was to plant upon the grave of Adam after his death; or, as some say, a seed, which he was to lay under his tongue. And presently Adam died, and Seth fulfilled the commands of the angel.
'From the seed planted upon the grave of Adam, or, as some say, the seed set under his tongue, there grew a goodly tree. And by-andby King Solomon, seeing its goodliness, bade them cut it down and fashion it for a summer-house they were building him. But the builders could not fit nor fashion it; first, it was too large for its place, then too small ; so they threw it aside, ana cast it for a bridge across a stream in Solomon's garden. The Queen of Sheba, coming to visit Solomon, was aware in the spirit of the miraculous virtue of this tree, and would not tread upon it, but fell down and worshipped it. And after she was gone, she sent messengers to Solomon, bidding him beware of that tree, for on it should be hanged one with whose death the kingdom of the Jews should pass away. So Solomon caused the tree to be buried deep in the ground. And later, the Jews unaware dug a well in the same place; this was the pool of Bethesda, and not only from the descent of the angel, but from the tree which was at the bottom of the well, the water drew healing virtues. About the time when Christ's ministry drew to an end, the tree of its own accord floated to the surface of the water, and the Jews finding it ready to their hand used it for a cross whereon to crucify Christ. After the Crucifixion it was buried, together with the crosses of the thieves, upon Mount Calvary ; and in the time of Hadrian a temple of Venus was built upon the site. Until the time of Constantine, nearly three hundred years after the Crucifixion, nothing more was seen of the Cross. In the history of Constantine, the visionary cross of his dream was closely but confusedly associated with the actual cross found by his mother. Some say that the dream, in which an angel holding a cross appeared to him, saying, "In this sign thou shalt conquer," was dreamed in the night before a great battle against the barbarians on the Danube ; some before the battle in which Constantine overthrew his rival Maxentius (A. B. 313) at Saxa Rubra, near Rome. However this was, Constantine, being converted, presently sent his mother Helena to find the True Cross at Jerusalem. When her coming was made known, the Jews wondered wherefore she came; till one Judas said he knew it was to find the Cross, for his grandfather Zaccheus had prophesied this coming to his father Simon. Christ, whom they crucified, had been the true God, said Judas, and for Christ's sake they had stoned Stephen, who