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final change might take place in the course of a single session. The Consolidated Fund taking upon itself the payment of the Established Clergy upon whatever scalea Church reformer might regulate, could recoupe itself out of the sale of Church lands at the full value, and with a parliamentary title—and also by compelling the landholders to redeem the tithe rent charge for a moderate composition as they have at present the option of redeeming their crown and quit rents. The sum so placed to the credit of the Imperial Exchequer would go a large way in diminishing the barthen justly thrown upon imperial resources, while every cause of complaint in Ireland might, by the removal of a few odious, although really inoperative restrictions from the Catholic clergy be totally at an end, without any approach to the subversion of the Establishment, or any state provision for the Catholic clergy. But under no circumstances can this question be allowed to sleep. The Establishment will not obtain easier terms by delay. There are those at work everywhere, Protestant and Catholic, who will not suffer it to stand. In a certain sense they are not free agents. They obey the bent and the current of the time. It is as much a matter of course for them to level religious inequalities, or to speak modern English, or wear modern costume. Civilization will of its own virtue abolish the present Establishment as effectual as it has abolished judicial astrology. Help who may, resist who will, “every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low.”

THE

IRISH QUARTERLY REVIEW.

No. XXVI.-JULY, 1857.

Art, I.--ODD PHASES IN LITERATURE.

FOURTH PAPER.

Annales Typographica, Norimbergæ. 1793.

From a Dissertation annexed to Morgan's Phænix Britannicus in the quarto edition of 1732, nuch interesting information may be gathered on the subject of Pamphlets.

The derivation of the word may be found in Minshew's Guide to Tongues, fol. 1627; in the Preface to Icon Libellorum; Skinner's Etym. Ling. Angl. fol. 1671; and Spelman's Glossary.

The term Pamphlet, or little paper book, imports no reproachful character, any more than the word great book ; it signifies a pasquil, as little as it does a panegyric of itself; is neither good nor bad, learned nor illiterate, true nor false, serious nor jocular, of its own naked meaning or construction; but it is either of them, according as the subject makes the distinction. Thus we read in Rushworth of scurrilous and abusive pamphlets, ordered to be burned in 1647 ; whilst the Encomium of Queen Emma is called a Pamphlet, in Holinshed.

Oldy's states :-As for the antiquity of pamphlets, it is not only questionable, whether the Art of Printing should set a bound to it, but even the adoption of the name itself, which yet I take to be more modern than that Art; for I look upon them as the eldest offspring of paper, and to claim the rights of primogeniture even of bound volumes, however they may be shorter-lived, and the younger brother has so much out-grown the elder; inasmuch as arguments do now, and more especially did in the minority of our erudition, not only so much more rarely require a larger compass than pamphlets will comprise ; but VOL. VII., NO. XXVI.

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these being of a more ready and facile, more decent and simple form, suitable to the character of the more artless ages, they seem to have been preferred by our modest ancestry for the communication of their sentiments, before book-writing became a trade: and lucre, or vanity let in deluges of digressory learning, to swell up unwieldy folios. Thus I find, not a little to the honor of our subject, no less a person than the renowned King Alfred, collecting his sage precepts and divine sentences, with his own Royal hand, into . quaternions of leaves stitched together;' which he would enlarge with additional quaternions, as occasion offered : yet he seemed to keep his collection so much within the limits of a pamphlet size (however bound together at last,) that he called it by the name of his hand-book, because he made it his constant companion, and had it at hand wherever he was.

“It is so difficult to recover even any of our first books or volumes, which were printed by William Caxton, though it is certain he set forth near half a hundred of them in folio, that it were a wonder if bis pamphlets should not be quite lost. There are more extant of his successor Wynkin de Worde's printing in this lesser form, whereof, as great rarities, I have seen both in quarto and octavo, though holding no comparison probably with those of his also, which are destroyed.

“ The civil wars of Charles I. and the Parliament party produced an innumerable quantity of these paper lanthorns, as a Wit of that time called them, which, while they illuminated the multitude, did not always escape the flames themselves.

“At this time might be mentioned the restless John Lilburn and the endless William Pryone, who wrote in earnest, for both bled in the cause. There are near a hundred pamphlets written by and concerning the first of these authors. But, the labors of the last being unparalleled, I may here not improperly observe, that, during the forty-two years he was a writer, he published above a hundred and sixty pamphlets, besides several thick bound volumes in quarto and folio, all said to be gathered into about 40 tomes, and extant in Lincoln's Inn Library. I think the printed catalogue of his writings extends not in their whole number beyond one hundred and sixty-eight different pieces; but Anthony Wood to above one hundred and fourscore; who also computes, he must needs have composed at the rate of a sheet every day, from the time that he came to man's estate.

"This particular notice of our most voluminous Pamphleteer will lead us to a general review of the numerous produce of the press, during that turbulent series afuresaid, wherein he was such a fruitful instrument, to impregnate the same and promote the superfætation thereof. For by the grand collection of Pamphlets, which was made by Tomlinson the bookseller, from the latter end of the year 1640 to the beginning of 1660, it appears there were published in that space near thirty thousand several tracts; and that these were not the complete issue of that period, there is good presumption, and I believe, proofs iu being : notwithstanding, it is enriched with near a bundred manuscripts, which nobody then ( being written on the side of Royalists) would venture to put in print; the whole, however, for it is yet undispersed, is progressionally and uniformly bound, in upwards of two thousand volumes, of all sizes. The catalogue, which was taken by Marmaduke Foster, the auctioneer, consists of twelve volumes in folio; wherein every piece has such a punctual register and reference, that the smallest even of a single leaf, may be readily repaired to there. by. They were collected, no doubt, with great assiduity and expense, and not preserved, in those troublesome times, with out greater danger and difficulty; the books being often shifted from place to place out of the Army's reach. And so scarce were many of these tracts, even at their first publication, that King Charles I. is reported to have given ten pounds for only reading one of them over, which he could no where else procure, at the owner's house in St. Paul's Church-yard.

“By the munificence of his Majesty Geo. III. the British Mu seum was some years since enriched with this most valuable collection of 30,000 tracts, bound in 2000 volumes; 100, chieily on the King's side, were printed but never published, the whole was intended for Charles the First's use, carried about England as the Parliament-army marched, kept in the collectors warehouses disguised as tables covered with canvas, and lodged last at Oxford under the care of Dr. Barlow till he was made Bishop of Lincoln. They were offered to the Library at Oxford, and at length bought for Charles II. by his stationer Samuel Mearne, whose widow afterwards was obliged to dispose of them by leave of the King, 1684; butitis believed, they continued unsold till his present Majesty bought them, of Mearne's representatives. In a printed paper it is said the collector refused £4,000 for them.

“Out of this immense collection Rushworth furnished himself with authorities; and, if the spirit of party was not so prevalent among them, we might still look them over with profit, but they are too much spoiled by the canting divinity of the times, which suits not the present age. Yet we have not been totally wanting in taste for these ephemerous productions, or of purchasers at an extravagant price, as Lord Somers, who gave more than £500 for Tom Britton the smallcoal man's collection in this way; and Anthony Collins, whose collection afterwards produced above £1800 ; encouragement sufficient to induce other collectors to gather what the squalls of fate and chance may throw up.”

Dr. Francis Bernard, who was physician to King James II., was a man of learning and well versed in literary history. He had the best private collection of scarce and curious books that had been seen in England, and was a good judge of their value. He died Feb. 9, 1697, in bis 70th year. The Catalogue of his books, which were sold by auction, is dated in 1698. The amount of this Auction (after deducting 4s. in the pound, which were the expenses of the sale) was £1600, a large sum in that time, when the passion for rare books was much more moderate than it is at present.

Pamphlets have been the terror of oppression. Thus Philip the Second's wicked employment, treacherous desertion, and barbarous persecution of his secretary Antonio Perez, upbraids him out of that Author's Librillo, through all Europe, to this day. Mary Queen of Scots has not yet got clear of Buch. anan's Detection. Robert Earl of Leicester cannot shake off Father Parson's Green-coatGeorge Duke of Buckingham will not speedily outstrip Dr. Eglisham's Fore-runner of Revenge. Nor was Oliver Cromwell far from killing himself, at the pamphlet which argued it to be no Murder, lest it should persuade others to think so, and he perish by ignobler hands than his own.

Oldys goes into a mass of arguments and valuable information, but we shall close with one

of his arguments iu favor of carefully preserving pamphlets:—"They stand in greater need of such care, than writings better secured by their bulk and bindings do. Many good old family books are descended to us, whose backs and sides our careful grand-sires buffed and bossed and boarded against the teeth of time, or more devouring ignorance, and whose leaves they guarded with brass, nay

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