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in company in virtue of some peculiar title—one be- sition, which prevented her from becoming fade. He cause he is rich—another because he is talented a third had laboured assiduously to cultivate and strengthen her because he is amusing—a fourth because we like him. mind. In the town which they inhabited there were Let no one attempt to lay claim to a place which is not about half-a-dozen families, living like themselves upon due to him, or go about to cozen people by false preten a narrow competency, all of them a slight degree more sions.

refined, and better educated than the shopmen and artiThis last paragraph, we are half inclined to suspect, has sans by whom they were surrounded. Amelia's busbeen a kind of digression. To return, the young of either band endeavoured, as his family increased in numbers, sex have rarely much talent for conversation. Their to eke out his slender income by receiving a few young consciousness of life is too overpowering. "Nevertheless gentlemen as boarders. Several of the neighbouring they have a power of making themselves agreeable to country gentlemen intrusted their sons to his care, and each other, which amply compensates for the want. It as there was a number of absentee proprietors in the is a bad sign when a very young person possesses that county, finding him and his wife superior persons, they power of ready but unimpassioned alternation of dis were glad of such an accession to the parrow range of course which forms the charm of conversation in peo- their summer society. Amelia's feeling of what constiple of more advanced years. It is customary to call tuted a proper deportment in society, had been formed precocious children hothouse plants, but the term is theoretically, upon the model of Shakspeare's and Richscarcely applicable here. A hothouse plant is one which, ardson's heroines. The cool observant character of ber by too liberal an application of heat and moisture, has husband had taught her to look on the realities of life, to attained an unnatural degree of succulence. It is too see her real situation in society, yet without injuring her luxuriant for its strength —it withers away from want natural and acquired gentility of mind. The mingling of stamina, But young persons, such as those of whom with the county families, and a delicate discerning tact, we are at present speaking, are unnatural in the other enabled her to conform to the simplicity of modern manners. extreme-they are withered before they begin to bour- A turn of mind acquired by having been, in a great mea. geon. They have the green leaves of youth without its sure, the instructress of her own children, and afterwards nourishing juices. They remind us of what the nursery invested, along with her husband, with a joint surveil-, tales relate concerning fairy changelings—withered, pee- lance over their young boarders, rendered her rather fond vish, insatiable, old persons, with the form and helpless- of teaching, while the fruits of her reading and observaness of infants.

tion enabled her to discern that the attainment of her Few men are good at conversation. They are in ge- wishes depended mainly upon her concealing them. She neral tou technical—their talk is overcharged with indi became a kind of missionary for the propagation of recations of their profession. Even those who have devo- finement of thought and action—we use the expression in ted themselves to no active business have favourite pur- | its worthiest sense—in the circle in which she moved. suits, literary or otherwise, which give a monotonous We were all attached her by her goodness of heart, colouring to their conversation. Such as are free from and attracted by her powers of conversation. Her all these faults, have a worse habit—that of talking poli- beneficial influence is attested to this day by the pecutics. This subject, as it is in general discussed, is the liarly urbane tone which pervades the society of the town most sickening and drivelling of all. Men who really in which she lived, by the success and happiness in take an interest in the matter and understand it, find after life which many of the friends of our youth, now that it is a serious study, and are anxious in their hours widely scattered through the world, gladly confess they of relaxation to lay the burden aside. It is uniformly owe to her. Our good Amelia had, it is true, a little of those who know only a few cant phrases by rote who in the pedant about her ; her character was in accordance sist upon introducing the subject on all occasions.“ Damn with her natural disposition, but it had been formed ic,” said Squire Western, “let us talk about politics— under rather adverse circumstances. She knew her worth something that we all understand.”

to the full extent, and piqued herself upon it. Yet we Ladies who have passed the age of thirty-five, and, ac have often wished that there were more Amelia — sin cording to rule—though there are some exceptions-mar the world. ried ones, make the best conversationists. We can approach “And now, my dear sir, will you tell me, what is them without a constant and intrusive reference to the your object in these long and desultory remarks ?" difference of sex, while they retain all that gentleness and To write a Bystander, Madonna. Have I succeeded ? feminine delicacy which form their principal charm. G. Whether the sphere in which they have moved be limited or extensive, so that it be not vulgar, they have picked up a mass of observation, which men intent upon one

LITERARY CRITICISM, object have no idea of. Their minds, unfettered by an artificial education, bave associated and arranged their Philip Augustus ; or, The Brothers in Arms. By the store in an original and pleasing manner. They possess

Three a light, graceful versatility, and the power of giving a

Author of “ Darnley," “ De L'Orme,” &c.

volumes, London. Colburn and Bentley. 1831. direction to the conversation, or suggesting topics, without seeming to do so. They form, in virtue of this “ Cette pièce," says Sismondi of an Italian tragedy, talent, the cement of society—the formers of the charac a le charme de la chevalerie, cette magie du bon vieux ter of youth. There is a fascination about them which temps qui nous remue si profondement.” The remark we want words to express.

is just as applicable to the volumes before us. Their We may be pardoned, if we devote a few sentences as a very first attraction is the lively and close drawn picture tribute to the memory of one of the dearest of these gen which they offer of the undefinable and graspless spirit tle friends—to one who, if she did not exactly correspond that once passed over the dwelling places of society, temwith the ideal picture now drawn, had qualities of a yet pering equally the policies of the highest sceptre, down higher kind to redeem her deficiencies.

to the roughest hospitality of the cabin, with an influence Amelia - was the wife of a retired army surgeon, after which a more open substance of power might have residing in a country town; the mother, although yet a panted in vain, and would indeed have broken the spell of young woman, of a large family. Her husband, a man its strength, by assuming any tangible figure. For it of erudition, and somewhat overstrained notions of was, in truth, a freemasonry of all the hearts in the civic honour and delicacy, had married her before she was out lized parts of the then known world. No one could exof her teens, a beautiful girl, deep read in poetry and plain by what avenue it bad first entered his breast, and romance, yet with a vein of the humorous in her compo continued to fashion and mingle in the acts of his daily

existence; but none, on the other hand, questioned its many supernumerary characters, whose presence is wholly appearance in his neighbour, nor for a moment hesitated unconnected with the advancement of the plot, and who himself to acknowledge and give way to its authority, really become the source of very vexatious disappointin even when it pointed out the path to the most romantic ment, by their sudden and unexpected entrances and perils, or to vows of wild devotion. It came like a exits, when, after arresting our observation by their first grand contagion, an intoxicating delirium, which drove appearance, we find, in a little, it is also to be the last, on the patient during its fervour to violent and absurd or that henceforth they are to swell the train of those conduct, but, like many a strong stimulant, left on its who give their parts " an understanding, but no tongue." departure the judgment and vision even keener than they Accordingly, when a new face appears, and a strange were before it bad entered the system, subsiding at last, voice cries fire, we invariably think three times, ere we in its final result, ioto a calmer and wiser equipoise of venture to put any trust in him. This class of precocious all the passions it had put in commotion. We need not gentlemen, so to call them, finds a fit representative in say what a wide field the various modifications, from in- the person of Guillaume Comte de la Roche Guyon. dividual or national causes, of such a disease, must ne- By all the laws of honour, he should have broken sundry cessarily lay open to scrutiny and explanation. And it lances with Sir Guy de Coucy; and his apropos appearis on this account that, wbile the devoir of the true ance at the castle of the latter, on the story of the murknight has been finished long ago, the occupation of his der of his grandfather, would, in all probability, in other companiou—the minstrel or troubadour, cannot be lost, hands, have been attended by some very startling and until the memory, not less than the living presence of marvellous consequences. With an extensive acquaintance the theme of his song, has died out and been forgotten. besides, as we said before, of his favourite topic, he loves The lay may never be repeated twice in the same strain, to give his knowledge lavishly out; and the desire per. for every generation bas a “touch of harmony" to admire haps of saturating his readers to the same extent with of its own, and the mere novelty of alteration, without himself, with this to him attractive information, is often prejudice to the truth of the matter, supports its length- the occasion of leading him into details and minutiæ, ened existence.

which, by the frequency of their repetition, break up the Of those who thus seek to perpetuate ancient worthi- general spirit of his narrative. We cannot help think. ness in a form agreeable to existing taste, the present ing also, that we discover throughout all this exactauthor, while he has been one of the steadiest to his ness, a tendency to the imitation of a greater mind, task, is very far from being the most unsuccessful in which, as it ought most assiduously to be courted as a its execution. Even now, while imagination only “du study, ought with equal care to be shunned in the copy bon vieux temps” can be his pride, he seems redolent of of its excellence, unless by a spirit whose innate strength all its enthusiasm, and conversant with all its scenery gives him assurance of the power to sustain an equal and character; and the mastery which he possesses over Aight. The opening circumstances of the novel, with the language of emotion, and the description of touching many of its subsequent incidents, remind us far too forloveliness, enables his strong feelings to find vent with cibly of what he never can aspire to approach--the romance their deepest effect. This capacity of expression we of Ivanhoe. think, indeed, is a principal cause of the popularity with But thegreatest fault of“ Philip Augustus" yet remains which the other efforts of Mr James have been, as the to be mentioned. Evidently overburdened with his matpresent one will no doubt be, much on the same account, ter, the power of its methodical arrangement seems unreceived. For, while we have not ourselves been struck fortunately to have deserted him; and while he has anywhere with a great display of original thinking, we given the outline of a thousand sketches, he has not perfectly understand how far the “pomp and circum- given a single finished rallying point round which they stance” of words may carry along with them, not merely may gather with any consistency and strength. Novel a forgetfulness towards such a want, but the delusion and detached as each chapter in the work is, standing by also, that the mind is actually imbibing a stock of fresh itself, it is not an episode from the general narration, but and untried information. Neither is the style too lofty; an individual and isolated history. The consequence is, it flows in a rich, powerful, and sustained stream. But that to give an analysis of the whole work, would be to the forte of our author we apprehend to be, the depth of give a framework of every one of these chapters. feeling with which he casts his eye across all natural Rather, therefore, than give a clumsy epitome of what beauty, and the responsive poetry of language which he really cannot bear any fair abridgement, and deal unsummons up to maintain and be the vehicle of his own justly both with the author and reader, we shall confine delight, to the finest sensibilities and affections of his ourselves to the selection of one or two prominent pas. readers.

sages. The prime interest of the tale, as its title implies, These are some general impressions in favour of Mr binges upon the haughty and passionate, but deep-designJames, drawn from his former volumes, and also those ing, cautious, and, in the very whirlwind of his passion, before us, which we wish to express before venturing on often coldly politic Philip. From the early means of inour more legitimate province, where we are not so confi- formation, indeed, regarding the internal situation of dent that his success has been very decisive. The world France, or rather from the want of general interest in has demurred to the decision of Milton on his own be- domestic movements at this epoch, the majority of our half; and although Mr James thinks the present work readers, we imagine, have been accustomed to view this " the best thing he has yet composed," we must take the singular man and great monarch through the medium liberty of dissenting from his opinion.

alone of his foreign policy ; thus giving an undue preThe choice of the subject is certainly very happy; and ponderance to the thirst of selfish aggrandizement, which the era, the manners, and condition of the country, the apparently was the mainspring of all the movements of bustle and variety of historical incidents, the many stri- France during his reign, both in relation to ber own goking characters who were there engaged-all opened up vernment, and the position of surrounding states. Let a wide career for talent and ingenuity. But a good us at length steady the tantalizing cup, that we have so romance, as much as a good play, requires, that where a often dashed from our lips, and make acquaintance with superabundance of materials exists in the hands of the Philip as he now stands before us. artist, a judicious sacrifice should be made of subordinate agents and events to the interests of a few principal “ Alone, in the solitude of that large chamber, those actors, or else, in the desire to omit nothing, every thing two beings were as if in a world by themselves. The will be apt partially to elude our grasp. In this way Mr fair girl, seemingly scarce nineteen years of age, with her James has erred, from a wish no doubt to embrace all light hair floating upon her shoulders in large masses of the objects in his extensive field, by the introduction of shining curls, leaned her cheek upon her hand, and gazing

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with her full, soft, blue eyes over the far-extended land- and agonized feeling—then said in low but resolute voice, 'scape, appeared lost in thought; while her other hand, Philip, it must be done! Farewell, beloved ! Farefondly clasped in that of her companion, shadowed out, well!' and, running forward towards the door, she took as it were, how nearly linked he was to her seemingly the arm of one of her women, to support her from the abstracted thoughts.

chamber. “ The other tenant of that chamber was a man of “ Before she could go, however, Philip caught her thirty-two or thirty-three years of age, tall, well formed, again in his arms, and pressed kiss after kiss upon her handsome, of the same fair complexion as his compa- lips and cheek. • Help me! help me!' said Agnes; and inion, but tinged with the manly florid hue of robust two of her women, gently disengaging her from the king's bealth, exposure, and exercise. His nose was slightly embrace, half bore, half carried her down the stairs, and, aquiline, his chin rounded and rather prominent, and raising her into the litter, drew its curtains round, and his blue eyes would have been fine and expressive, had veiled her fárcher sorrows from all other eyes. they not been rather nearer together than the just pro “ When she was gone, Philip stood for a moment portion, and stained, as it were, on the very iris, by gazing, as it were, on vacancy, twice raised his band some hazel spots in the midst of the blue. The effect, to his head-made a step or two towards the doorhowever, of the whole, was pleasing; and the very de- reeled-staggered—and fell heavily on the floor, with the fect of the eyes, by its singularity, gave something fine blood gushing from his mouth and nostrils.” and distinguished to the countenance; while their nearness, joined with the fire that shone out in their glance, have seemed to draw forth the defects of “ Philip Augus.

We fear that, in the course of these remarks, we may seemed to speak that keen and quick sagacity, which sees and determines at once, in the midst of thick dangers beauties to slumber in the shade. Perhaps this appearance

tus" (the novel) into invidious light, while we allowed its and perplexity. “ The expression, however, of those eyes was now

is inseparable from the duties of the “ungentle craft." In calm and soft, while sometimes holding her hand in his, taking leave of the subject, however, we can say that our sometimes playing with a crown of wild roses he had contidence in the abilities of the author is no way dimiput on his companion's head, he mingled one rich curl claims of THE ONE who stands pre-eminent-among the

nished--that we still regard him-setting apart the after another with the green leaves and the blushing first authors of the day, in that class of composition flowers; and, leaning with his left arm against the 'em.

which seems to be his favourite, but that we cannot conbrasure of the window, high above her head, as she sat gazing out upon the landscape, he looked down upon the

cur with him in giving “ Philip Augustus” the preference

" Richelieu." beautiful creature, through the mazes of whose hair his other hand was straying, with a smile strangely mingled of affection for her, and mockery of his own light em

Sermons. By the late Sir Henry Moncreiff Well wood, ployment.

Bart., D.D., &c. &c., formerly one of the Ministers of There was grace, and repose, and dignity, in his

St Cuthbert's, Edinburgh. Vol. III. whole figure, and the simple green hunting tunic which

Pp. 552. he wore, without robe or hood, or ornament whatever, Sermons and Sacramental Exhortations.

William Whyte and Co. 1831.

By the late served better to show its easy majesty, than would the robes of a king; and yet this was Philip Augustus.

Andrew Thomson, D.D., Minister of St George's

Church, Edinburgh. Pp. 517. William Whyte and So pensive, sweet Agnes !' said he, after a moment's

Co. 1831. silence, thus waking from her reverie the lovely Agnes de Meranie, whom he had married shortly after the syco The distinguished authors of these posthumous rophant bishops of France had pronounced the nullity of lumes have many claims upon our respect. They both his unconsummated marriage with Ingerberge, for whom occupied a very eminent station in our national church: he had conceived the most inexplicable aversion.". and, while there existed many striking points of difference

Equally powerful is the picture of the separation of between them, they possessed in common indefatigable this fond pair, when the necessities of state affairs and business babits, great natural shrewdness and tact, steadithe cold calculations of worldly, men had torn them that party in the church, of which they were successively

ness of principle, and a commanding influence among asunder:

the leaders. As impartial critics, however, we are com" At three, the queen's litter was in the castle-court, pelled to judge books by their own merits, and not by the the sergeants of arms mounted to attend her, and the high name of their authors. This must be our apology horses of her ladies held ready to set out. With a heart for confining our notice of the two volumes now before beating with stronger emotions than had ever agitated it us within the scanty limits of a short article. in the face of adverse hosts, Guerin approached the Sir Henry Moncreiff has already appeared before the apartments of Agnes de Meranie.' He opened the door, public, both as a writer of sermons and as a biographer ; but paused without pushing aside the tapestry, saying, but more successfully in the latter capacity than in the My lord !'

former.' His Life of Erskine is an interesting piece of «« « Come in,' replied Philip, in a voice of thunder ; biography, and well deserves perusal on account both of and Guerin, entering, beheld him standing in the midst the information which it contains, and especially the juof the floor, with Agnes clinging to him, fair, frail, and dicious remarks on character and doctrine with which it faint, with her arms twined round his powerful frame, is interspersed. His Sermons (we allude particularly to like the ivy clinging round some tall oak agitated by a the volume published in 1805) are chiefly remarkable for

The king's face was beated, his eyes were red, a strong infusion of Calvinistic divinity of the most rigid and the veins of his temples were swelled almost to character. They are too exclusively doctrinal perhapsbursting • She shall not go!' cried he, as Guerin en too dryly metaphysical for general edification--they smack tered, in a voice both raised and shaken by the extremity too much for modern palates of that school divinity of his feelings,— By the Lord of Heaven ! she shall not which was at one time so fashionable among the divines

of our church, and which we are not sorry to see super“ There was energy in his tone almost to madness ; seded by a style of preaching not less strictly orthodox, and Guerin stood silent, seeing all that he had laboured but more popular, more practical, and consequently likely to bring about swept away in that moment. But Agnes to prove more generally useful. The present volume is slowly withilrew her arms from the king, raised her more miscellaneous in its contents, and altogether fur. weeping face from his bosom, clasped her hands together, nishes a more favourable specimen of the author's pulpit and gazed on him for a moment with a glance of deep eloquence. Even here we occasionally discover a little



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mysticism, and not a little dogmatism--the latter qua- reams of paper without an eye to publication. Not so lity we should have considered in ordinary cases as with clergymen. They write sermons to assist them in highly offensive, but in this particular instance it is soft- the useful discharge of their duty in instructing their ened down to us by two considerations, the respect we people, and the compositious, when thus used, may effecowe to a wise and good man, and the circumstance that tually serve their present purpose, though they may be his positions are generally so much in accordance with totally unfit for the public eye, for which, in fact, they our own sentiments, that we are willing to excuse the never were intended. Under such circumstances, the reason which in strictness we are entitled to demand. fame of the departed, and sometimes even the cause of The volume contains twenty-two sermons, the best of religion, may suffer from the undue partiality, the ignowhich, in our opinion, are the first, on “ Christ's Death, rance, or the cupidity, of surviving relatives. The injury and its Effects,"—the eighth, on the “ Doctrine of As- to the dead is still greater, when, as in the case of Dr surance,”—and the thirteenth, “ The Consolations of Thomson, sudden and unexpected death overtakes a man Faith.”

in the midst of his usefulness, and without that warning If the present volume adds little to our national stock which would have put it into his power to place beyond of theological literature, it at least supports the reputa- the reach of relatives papers which were intended for no tion which Sir Henry Moncreiff had already earned as eye but his own. We know the apology which is genean elegant writer, and a shrewd, well-informed, and rally offered in such cases, but we greatly doubt its validity orthodox divine. We must not forget to mention that at least to the extent to which it is sometimes urged. the greater number of the discourses contained in this We offer these remarks here, because we have understood volume were selected from Sir Henry's papers, and a that the publishing another volume (and who will ensure few of them printed under the revisal of the late Dr A. us against another and another ?) of Dr Thomson's serThomson, and that there is a short, modest, and elegant mons is in contemplation. The experiment has been Preface, by the author's distinguished son, Lord Mon- sufficiently tried, and we can assure his executors that creiff.

they are not likely to increase their departed friend's reOf Dr Thomson it would be easy to speak at length, putation, or their own, by its repetition. and difficult to say any thing new. The part which he These strictures do not apply to Sir Henry Moncreiff's. acted during the last twenty years of his life was too posthumous volume, because it appears that he had corconspicuous to leave the public ignorant of his character rected and re-written almost all the Discourses in the as a public man or as an author.' It cannot be denied volume now.published, with an eye to their being laid that he appeared to much greater advantage in his living before the public. appearances than in his writings. The former were almost uniformly successful, and sometimes eminently so. His eloquence was not of a very lofty character ; at the Ivan Vejeeghen ; or, Life in Russia. By Thaddeus. Bulsame time we are willing to admit that this remark must gårin. Two vols. 12mo. Pp. 292, 296. London : be qualified by many splendid exceptions; but as a de Whittaker and Treacher. Edinburgh: Henry Conbater, we never saw him fairly matched. The same stable. - 1831. character, though in an inferior degree, belonged to'bis

Ivan VEJEEGHEN is a sort of Russian Gil Blas. We writings. In personal satire, in controversy, in smart criticism; he was strong, and he was conscious of his sentative of Lá Sage's logician and coward, moral pica

mean the book, not the hero, for he is but a tame represtrength. In his graver publications be has, to a great roon, and selfish friend. The adventures of the Russian extent, failed.

This is the more to be wondered at, not resemble those of the Spaniard in this—that they intromerely because he was an extremely popular preacher, duce us to almost every grade of Russian society, and for nothing is more common than instances of popular that the story of them is told in a satirical style, in a preachers publishing unreadable sermons, but because his strain of acquired misanthropy, tempered with natural popularity was fixed upon the sure and legitimate ground bon-hommie. of good sense and practical exposition of divine truth.

We are first introduced to Ivan as a neglected and Besides, he was a practised and a skilful writer ; and if abused orphan, on the establishment of a Polish noblehis style is distinguished more by vigour than by ele- man settled in Bialo-Russia. His treatment here is gance, this arose rather from the character of the man sketched in a light caustic style that reminds us of the than from his ignorance of classical composition. Per

castle of Thonder-ten-tronckh. haps, after all, the secret of his failure—for his authorship in sermon-writing is a failure-lies in the haste with “ The first ten years of my life were spent in the house which he composed and published. With the exception of Mr Gologordoffsky, a country gentleman in Bialoof his “Sermons on Infidelity," his discourses appear to Russia : there I was reared like a home-bred wolfling, be the very hasty productions of a richly-stored and yi- and was known under the name of The Orphan. Nogorous mind, satisfying itself with the thoughts which body cared for me, and still less cared I for any body. presented themselves first in order, and taking little None of the inmates of the house paid me any attention trouble to exhibit them otherwise than in their original except an old, 'worn-out dog, who, like me, was left to shape. We have mentioned his “ Sermons on Infidelity” provide for himself. as an exception to this slovenliness of authorship. They “I had no corner of the house assigned me for my contain more thought, more condensation and pertinence lodging, no food nor clothing allotted me, nor any fixed of reasoning, and more careful arrangement, than we find occupation. In the summer, I spent my days in the open in his other sermons and lectures; but, upon the whole, air, and slept under the sheds attached to the barn or Dr Thomson's published discourses will add little to his cowhouse. In the winter, I lived in the bulky kitchen, living reputation. We make this remark general, be- which served as a rendezvous for the numerous train of cause we find nothing in the present volume to deserve servants, and I slept on the hearth among the hot einders. particular criticism. It is like the bulk of its predeces- In summer, I wore pothing but a long shirt and a piece sors, partaking in the usual proportion of their faults and of rope about my waist : in winter, I covered my nakedexcellencies.

ness with whatever came in my way—any old jacket or Before concluding this short notice, we have a word to fragment of a peasant's coat served my purpose. With say about publishing posthumous volumes of sermons, these articles I was furnished by compassionate people, and we think the present a very proper occasion. In who did not know what to do with their old rags. I ordinary cases, when a man leaves any MSS. at his wore nothing on my feet, which became so hardened that death, his executors have a sort of right to publish them, neither grass, nor mud, nor ice, made any difference of as it may be fairly presumed that few men will scribble feeling. My head likewise was left to its natural covera

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ing: the rain washed out the dust, and the snow cleared excess of refinement and utter barbarism, superstition away the ashes. I was fed with the fragments from the and infidelity, ardent aspirations after improvement, and servants' table, and feasted upon eggs, which I gathered contented filth, stupidity, and beggary, are placed in the in the neighbourhood of the ben-house, and about the most harsh contrast and startling collision, and held in barn; on the leavings in the milk-pots, which I licked this unnatural juxtaposition by the grasp of an iron with uncommon relish, and on fruit, which I stole by despotism. Russia is not advancing in civilisation. She night in the orchard. I was under the command of no has gone as far as she can in the path she has struck into, one in particular, but every body ordered me about at but that is a blind alley, and she has reached its terminadiscretion. In summer, they set me to herd the geese on tion. Her improvement, wretched and superficial as it the pasture, or on the banks of the pond, to protect the is, has been effected forcibly from without-it is not the goslings and chickens from dogs and kites. In winter, spontaneous growth of the national mind. All reforms they employed me as a turnspit in the kitchen, and this brought about by power, instead of conviction, have a selfwas to me a most agreeable occupation. Every time that counteracting effect, which in a brief time cbecks their the cook turned his or her back, I would quickly apply progress. Russia is at this moment a moral petrifaction my palm to the juicy roast, and under my wrist suck my-nothing short of a great internal revolution can breathe greasy hand as a bear does its paw. I sometimes very into her rigid frame the relaxing and inspiriting breath ingeniously snatched pieces of bacon from the dripper, of life. and stole cutlets out of the stewing-pan: my chief occu It is chiefly in the portraiture of the domesticated rir. pation was to run errands for all the men-servants, maid-tues and vices that the author of Ivan Vejeegben is most servants, and even the footboys. They sent me to the at home. There is a want of power and wildness in his kartchma* for vodky,t placed me on the outlook in sundry scenes of savage life. But his good country gentlemen, places, without explaining their reasons; with orders to amiable women, dupes, and gamblers, are drawn with the whistle or clap my hands on the appearance of the squire, band of a master. Being rather in a cynical mood to steward, and sometimes even of the other men-servants, day, we incline to loiter in the gallery of fools and knaves.' or maid-servants. On the first word—'Orphan, run What follows is a happily-conceived picture of a not unthis way or that way, and call this one or that one'-I common mania both in Germany and Russia. set off at the gallop, and fulfilled my instructions to a tittle, knowing that the smallest neglect would expose mitted his endeavours to play the part of an English

“ The landlord, Falalay Gloopáshkeen, never interme to an inevitable beating. When they placed me on the watch, and forbade me to look about me-- which the most fashionable furniture, with pictures, statues, and

lord. His wooden house was luxuriously fitted up with mostly happened in the garden, during the summer sea

bronzes. His stable contained more than a hundred son-I stood like one buried in the ground, not daring even to lift up my eyes, or make the least motion, tili English horses, and he had upwards of three hundred they pushed me from the spot. Sometimes, though had a number of foreigners— English, Germans, and

hounds of different breeds. Among his attendants he very seldom, they rewarded me for my zealous services French. For a companion, he kept a Frenchman, under with a piece of black bread, old bacon, or cheese, and I, the denomination of a litterateur, who was his private not being famished, would divide it with my beloved dog secretary: to an Englishman he paid a high salary, Koodlashka.

“ Observing how other children were fondled and merely to talk with him, and perfect him in the pronunkissed, I wept bitterly, from an inexpressible feeling of ciation of the English language. An Italian, an old envy and chagrin: the caresses and blandishments of rogue, lived with him as a sort of friend. He enjoyed

the reputation of being a connoisseur of painting, antiques, Koodlashka alleviated my grief, and made my solitude

and music. more tolerable. If other children caressed their mothers lian pictures, mosaics, counterfeit antiques, and along

The Italian traded in the most paltry Itaand nurses, I would do the same to my Koodlashka, with that was a usurer and messenger of gallantry. A calling him mammy and nursy, lifting him, kissing him, German librarian served for a small salary, being attractpressing him to my breast, and tumbling with him on

ed by his love for catalogues, of which there was a num. the sand. I had an inclination to love my fellow-creatures, particularly those of the other sex, but this incli- ber in the library. Gloopáshkeen bought a whole com

pany of players from an amateur of the drama, by name nation was thwarted by fear.”

Kbarakhóreen, who had squandered away his property, From this thraldom he is emancipated, by the elope- but consoled himself for the loss, by performing in all ment of a daughter of the magnate, whose attendant he private theatres, and managing his old troop. Gloopáshhas been constituted. From the service of her husband, keen's orchestra was also composed of serfs, whom he had a young officer, he passes into that of a Jew broker, eking collected from different private orchestras. In the house out the gains of his profession by a little smuggling and there were about tive hundred inmates fed at the expense coin-clipping. This master transfers him to an ex-pro- of Gloopásbkeen, and serving merely for his diversion. cureur of a province. While living with this gentleman, It was difficult to keep from laughing at seeing the grave he is discovered by an aunt, and emancipated. We have air of the beardless fool, who, fancying himself a great next a bistory of his schoolboy adventures, first love man, spoke about every thing in a decided tone ; proaffair, and sale to slavery among the Kirgheez, “of his nounced his opinions upon politics in sentiments borrowredemption thence, and with it all his travel's history.” ed from his English companion ; delivered lectures upon He returns to Moscow, gets inveigled with an actress, literature in the words of his Frenchman, and spoke upon and turns gambler; enters the army, and serves with the arts under the prompting of the Italian. Many of distinction. Settling at St Petersburg, he discovers his the guests, without having the least idea of the subjects real parentage, and finds himself heir to a fortune, mar on which he spoke, and knowing the sciences merely by ries, and becomes an honest man.

name, looked upon him as a miracle of wisdom, and, We have already said that the style of this work is while they enjoyed the luxuries of his table, loudly prothat of a tempered satire. Our readers will understand claimed that Russia would be happy if Gloopáshkeen from this that allowance must be made for its pictures of were minister.” Russian life as verging upon caricature. With this cau

The absurdities of the middle class-if the term be tion, however, they will find it afford them a tolerably applicable in Russia—are sketched in a manner not less correct idea of the mechanism of that great empire, where felicitous.

“ In an hour and a half the elder brother requested A Polish hostelry is called a kartchma.

his guests to return into the gala-rooms, informing them + Vodky is an ill-tasted sort of whisky, made from malt and rye

that there would be a performance of a Prench comedy,


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