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ا ا و أورو، و بميين
brought together on that subject, yet his sents and
row's Analecta, by James Maidment, Esq. F.S. A. Scot.
Although o'er its fathomless gloom, These details give a very favourable impression of the Unheard may the wild billows boom, marquis's conduct in such a trying situation, and have
And the battle's Houd roat never, we believe, begre published.
Wake the sleeper The secretary next made some remarks on a portion
Far adown in his dark ocean-tomb; of the history of Scotland in the end of the 9th century, as given by George Chalmers, Esq., in his Caledonia,
Yet there to the slumberer clings, vol. j. pp. 381-2-3. These remarks went to show, what,
Of unheard of
coil, tory, namely, that the text of Mr Chalmers's valuable
Darkly clasping the spoil, work is not always supported by his authorities; and
That Death to their dwelling-place brings that, whilst his collections on the early history of Scotland are acknowledged to be the most
ever! YA and there comes no ray of the morn,
Nor gleam of the moon's silver horn,inferences from isolated facts and meagre quotations, Nor the eve's rosy light, must in many cases be received with extreme (eaution. Nor the pale stas nidighbH Te In the instance to which Mr. Gregory's remarks, were Gild the gloom of the waters forlorn. applied on the present occasion, a comparison of the texty
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dit But ber, the beautiful, the bright,
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(When the gun peal'd my knell,
With its deep-voiced farewell) Plunged down in the lone, sullen sea.
و 8 و 1 غتلتقتنعيييميل
gazes with intense delight on lovely and majestic forms
in his eye lightens the spirit of the creative genius that By Professor Wilson.
gave them birth. He loves his country, because he is its child. What nature has poured down on earth and heaven, has been the gladness of life to his soul from the youngest years of his memory. What gifts she has
poured on the soul of the people, have fallen also upon What land is there that does not pour forth its own him. And from these elements, mixed with all the loves wealth to its inhabitants? The bounty of nature to and all the remembrances of life, is formed to him a pathemselves is acknowledged by all her offspring; and the triotism, which makes one favoured region of the earth love of the wildest savage to his dreary home is a rude more dear than all the rest, which gives him a pride in native patriotism. Deep custom has bound his heart to the glory of one people, a love to their welfare, a sorrow the good which he understands; but there is a joyous in their calamity, a shame in their humiliation. desire and love to the scenes and occupations of his life, It is not the barrenness or luxury of the earth that atin which is a vividness of feeling which custom alone taches a people to their soil; it is not the magnitude of could not give. It is the spirit rejoicing to expatiate in empire, or the narrow boundary of a little territory, that the wealth of life that is spread before it. And if he determines the question of their national pride. It is not boast no laws which challenge the loyalty of those they whether they are self-governed and free, or the subjects have protected, and if the soil be adorned with no arts of a despotic sceptre, that decides whether they feel which exalt their condition, nevertheless, the hut and the strongly the bands that unite them with their people. fishy stream, the wood where the wild deer lie, and the Every climate, and every condition of power, and every pasture of wild moorish hills, form to him a region of de- form of polity, may bring forth in a people a national light, and he cleaves to the bosom of that nature from spirit, which binds them in love and pride to a country of which he has sprung. Such is his patriotism—the germ their own. If there has been among the nations some in its simplest state, of that passion which is unfolded in ancient monarchy, high in its fame in arms, the people nobler forms among nobler communities. But the strong who live under it shall not miss the liberties they have original instinct of the human creature is there, not less never known, but shall take to themselves the renown of powerful because it is unexpanded.
the gallant soldiers they have sent forth, and love their Every one feels this who is not depressed with evils country for the recital of her wars. If the luxury and that bring distaste even upon the sense of life. Here the refinement of a splendid court have nourished to a greater feeling begins, in the very love to life, and, therefore, it height of perfection, in one nation than in all others, the cleaves to those places which are life's home. As the polished courtesies of social life, this distinction of the state is nobler, as greater affections are unfolded, and be country will enter into the pride of the national spirit, come an essential part of the whole existence, they be. and into that love which makes one country alone, above come a part of those feelings which are compounded in all others, the object of permanent desire. If at home the affection of patriotism. Is the warrior glorious in the and abroad the name of their king arise above that of the prowess of his arm ; does the nation guard with pious nation, and gather to him all her glory in arts and arms, care the bones of the dead, and cherish in song the me the subject will pride himself in the glory of his monarch; mory of ancestors who were daring in their own battles, and that very circumstance, which seems to deprive his and laid down their life for their renown? The pride of country of its honours, will, by the self-flattering spirit his own triumphs and the remembrance of the great of of national love, be converted into a source of praise. old, shall mingle in the proud and solemn love which he It would be melancholy, indeed, when we see how unbears to the land that has been their common birth- equally the greater blessings of nature, of political instiplace. Or does he live in a city of equal laws-a city tutions, and of mind, have been dealt to mankind, if the where rights are guarded under the shadow of liberty- love of a nation to its lot, and its pride in itself, were where pure loves dwell in the bosom of an austere sim- limited to one or another of the different conditions of plicity of manners—and holy fires burn on unviolated existence that have been assigned them. The spirit of altars? His patriotism, more sacred and severe, shall com- the human race bas been differently framed. It has been prehend all these things, which make, the honour of his endowed with the power of knowing and enjoying the country, and fill his heart with its purest happiness. Or good that is given, much more than of suffering from that does his country boast advantages of a different kind ? which is withheld. It has been gifted with a power of Is she the seat of beautiful arts, which men from all na- creating happiness to itself, by the very vigour of its own tions come to admire? Then though her boast be only spirit of life, and of pouring even beauty around it, from her beautiful sky, and the happy genius of her people, he the overflowing of its love. To every people there are will feel his heart swell with love and triumph, as he given the elements of a strong affection to their native looks upon that beauty, and on the works of that genius. land, and to all that it bears ; to the people that dwell For he too has breathed only beneath that beaming hea- in it, and the works with which they have crowned it. ven, and his spirit is nursed in its light; he too is en And this affection, more or less expanded, more or less dowed with that passionate imagination, which listens enlightened, more or less ennobled, is their patriotism. delighted to the numbers of soft flowing song, which Undoubtedly the feeling is different, according to the
character and circumstances of the nation. It is of a admiration and love with which we are accustomed to higher character, and takes more the appearance of a look on the actual exhibition of the feelings, we know virtue, as the condition of a people is itself more grate- how to ascribe to this part of our being its real dignity ful in contemplation to our moral feelings. Where the and importance; and to speak of it adequately to the part whole land rejoices in the light of liberty, where a thou- it bears in human virtue and knowledge. In this way sand and a thousand homes are inhabited by peaceful con- only can we estimate aright the importance and authority tent, where public justice in the state presides over in- | that is to be ascribed to the emotions as they arise, condividual happiness, where the objects of a just, high, and sidered merely as facts of our nature which in them denatural sympathy are spread wide and numberless around clares itself-as voices from that soul which is of heaon every side, there, indeed, we look with more satisfac- venly frame-as inspirations and revealings which come tion on that national feeling which embraces them all, to our intelligence from that power which framed us to and commend it as a nobler patriotism; because we per- feel, and prescribed, in the original structure of our being, ceive that the objects to which it is directed are worthy the emotion which should belong to each occasion and of all love and pride, and we foresee that no difficult or event in life. costly sacrifices can be required by such a country, which The mere feeling or emotion, however,—the simple will not be well bestowed in maintaining its rights, or movement which passion gives forth, is not alone of auwhich may not be supported by the feelings which it in- thority, because it leads alike to good and ill. But it is spires. But every country, whatever its condition may never alone. No feeling arises without the accompanybe, has its own patriotism ; nor can any thing utterlying consciousness that it is right or wrong. The voice of destroy it, but that dissoluteness of vice, under which a Conscience rises with that of passion, justifying or disal. people cannot long exist as a nation, or that servitude to lowing. And the emotion which thus arises, self-approà foreign dominion, which may extinguish all national ved, is the only specific instruction given us in our own feeling in hopelessness and humiliation. Shame has been minds of what is right; the emotion thus arising, selfcalled the "sorrow of pride;" but pride, under such sor condemned, the only direct instruction so given us of what row often and long suffered, dies and with it, in the is wrong. And this allowance or reproval of our feeling heart of a nation, dies patriotism.
in the moment of its birth, is the most authoritative instruction which, within the circle of mere humanity, we can know; for here Nature and Conscience speak in our souls, and both are from God.
The capacity of emotion and will, which is designated under the name of Passion, is not only powerful by the cogency with which it exerts its effect over man, but also by the authority which resides in it. For what does he In Passion we find two states perfectly distinct from know, naturally, of good or evil, but through these reve each other, the emotion arising from contemplation of lations that are made in his mind by pleasure and pain, the object, an affection of pleasure or pain in which the aversion and desire ? Or what help can his reason give mind may be passive merely; and, arising out of this, the him except by the cognizance it is able to take of these movement of the mind to or from the object. There is emotions, and the comparison it may afterwards make of also a third state, intimately connected with this last, and the different affections which in them he has experienced ? yet differing from it,the state of will. Even that supreme principle of Conscience, by which he is The first point, then, is the susceptibility of impression the judge of good and evil, however mysteriously it may and emotion. In some minds this exists to a great extent, be itself distinct from all other emotion of pleasure and without producing strong exertion of will. It is then pain, aversion and desire, is no exception to the remark called Sensibility, which regards simply the capacity of just made, since it is on these affections and emotions, as being deeply and strongly affected. However, sensibility they arise in the mind, and on nothing else, that it does itself may be of very different characters ; as it may be itself exert its high jurisdiction,
quick and vivid, but transient; or its affections may be It is in this light, then, that we ought to regard the more calm, but deep and fixed. The susceptibility of passionate nature of man; not merely as the source of great exhilaration of heart, or of sudden and passionate strong and urgent emotion, not merely as the seat of hap- sorrow, is found under the first character; under the piness and suffering, but as that part of his being by which second, deep and steadfast joy, which sustains in the mind his whole various capacity of good and evil is developed no more perhaps than a calm, bright serenity, and yet in his nature. When we have felt, the mind becomes a implies not a tranquil indisposition to be affected, but an storehouse, in which thoughts and knowledge are treasu extreme and fine sensibility to pleasure. On the other
But before we have felt, the determination of hand, the same temper of mind may produce a settled and the mind is the same. When we have felt, we may say, enduring melancholy. This is that first affection in which what do we know of the beauty of love, but that we have the mind is merely passive. loved ? What conception of the sanctity of reverential Now, though in considering Passion, we may regard gratitude, but the remembrance of the very feeling as it these impressions on the sensibility as given merely in occupied our mind? What is our thought of the solem- order to prepare and lead on those movements of the will, nity of religion, but a renewal of that solemnity, which through which the mind is turned into action, which may was a present feeling during some of its awful services ? be conceived as the ultimate purpose and proper end of But, before love was ever strong, before the benefit was these affections of pleasure and pain,--yet, if the emotion ever understood for which gratitude is felt, before the should not reach to will, we by no means necessarily idea could enter the mind of that Being towards whom esteem this falling short of its seemingly destined end, as religion performs its service, the preparation of these a defect in the working of the mind. On the contrary, feelings was as determinate in the mind, as the feelings the affections of the sensibility are often very touching to themselves are definite after they are known.
us to contemplate, or beautiful, majestic, and sublime. allow that these feelings are good—this love, this grati- when they reach not to the production of any purpose ia tude, this awe? Then that constitution of the mind is the will; as the sorrow which is felt for those who good, in which these feelings are prepared, and by which mourn, when our sympathy can offer them nothing but they are made inevitable; that constitution in which they its sorrow; as the grief of those who mourn the loss of already exist in the capacity, though not in the exertion. that which they have loved, when their piety restraias
Thus regarding it, and transferring to the constitution all impatient murmuring at their own privation, and all and original capacity of these feelings in our mind, that | vain longing towards that which is gone ;-—surely their
grief, in its simplicity, is most affecting and beautiful. So as interrupting the integrity of the first emotion. They is the happiness of children, on whom joy falls like the show merely how deeply the impression that is made by sunshine, and passes away. Such, too, is the admiration au object of affection may be carried into our naturewe feel for characters of awful greatness, who, in the into what depths of our being its capacities of love are humility of our reverence, seem to us lifted up far above extended, when its highest, as well as its lowlier faculour imitation: In these instances, and numberless others ties can join in one single, full, unvarying emotion occuthat will be supposed, all that we see of the Passion is the pying the soul. årst simple emotion, strongly declared in the soul, but Or suppose that some upright and ingenuous mind, that not passing on to the effects that naturally and properly had known no stain, is, under the sudden force of some arise out of the primary feeling.
stronger passion, or by fatal circumstances, betrayed into an The tendency, therefore, of desire and will to arise act by which it feels itself dishonoured. Is it not certain, out of the first feeling, does not depend on the strength that the more oppressed it is with humiliation and shame, of the emotion, but on many other circumstances. For the more it feels only the weight of its offence, turning it shall often be found to be an argument of deep sensi- aside neither on the one hand to seek for palliatory cirbility, that the emotion passes into no other forin. Its cumstances and excuses, nor on the other yet imagining very force preserves the integrity and simplicity of the that there is any possible expiation or recovery for it, feeling. It seems reasonable, indeed, to think that the the more, in short, it is possessed and occupied with the inore deeply any passive emotion settles upon the mind, single overwhelming consciousness of guilt and shame, the less it will be disposed to stir into any new forms of the more undoubted evidence it then gives of the strength feeling. It is possessed with the simple, single affection. of moral and pure feeling in itself, and the surer hope it Hence, I believe, it is found, that minds of great feeling affords, that if there be expiation and recovery before it, are often very slow to derive any purpose from their emo its full powers will be exerted, when the mind rises at tion, even that which necessarily follows; or to con last to that better prospect, to redeem its transgression ? ceive in what manner they shall act upon it; it being long Contrast that self-humbled, sunk spirit, with him who before the first deep impression of emotion is sufficiently almost, in the moment he has violated his convictions of exhausted in the mind, to allow it to turn to any other right, can throw off the one-half of his offence upon the mode of feeling, or to any spontaneous activity. And hence recollection of the circumstances that betrayed him, and minds which have afterwards been found to be formed the other half on his confident anticipation of redeeming for great power and strong passion, have appeared in early his error in the future. Both these, indeed, are the nalife as slow in passion and in thought, because they had tural recoils of the mind from the oppressive sense of this nature of deep affection, and were of the kind that wrong committed by itself; but the first is an escape from from strong emotion slowly resume their ordinary powers. pain, which a good mind will be cautious in allowing It is evident that minds so constituted are least of all to itself at all; the second is that by which such a mind be slighted. More is to be expected from them by far will at last seek to blot out its fault; but it will be late than from those which, from the impulse of emotion, are in imagining that it is possible by such atonement to wipe quick to change their state. It is doubtful, indeed, whe- away offence. ther a mind that is versatile in its emotions, can have the Let us look at the same instance in the other point of endowment of great power.
view I have suggested, and consider what understanding Let us imagine, for instance, in what manner the emo. such an event would give such a mind, both of itself and tion of love possesses the mind of a mother looking at of our nature. No fancy, which an unsullied mind can her child asleep. We can suppose it to be a deep still form of the pangs of conscious guilt and dishonour, can feeling that scarce looks more into the future than into approach to the reality. He might apprehend before that the past, but is blest in present consciousness. The more there were such pangs in human nature ; now he has fully her mind is occupied with the present feeling, with experienced, and knows what they are.
He will never its single undisturbed consciousness, the deeper founda- again feel the same proud opinion of himself which he tion is laid for that powerful and indestructible love once cherished. But he will ever after know with a cerwhich must afterwards be her support in the acts of ma tainty for which he had before no grounds, that man is ternal duty. But the remembrance of the feelings of framed as a moral being, when he finds, in addition to his such hours will afterwards give to her understanding an former experience of the happiness of innocence, that insight into the constitution of a mother's heart, which there is laid in the very structure of his nature a provishe could no otherwise have possessed; it will give her sion of misery, for every violation of a moral law. light as to the nature of human affections which she Our imagination, it is true, always goes beyond our could not else have found. For (I suppose her mind not present experience ; and, in addition to that knowledge to be of the lowest order) she will perceive that in that of our common nature, which every mind derives from feeling of tender and happy love, there was mysteriously the feelings that have been made realities to its intelligence mixed with the yearning of a parent bosom to the being by the presence of the real objects affecting it, it has that has sprung from it, the solemn regard of a spirit derived a less certain and more ideal apprehension of knowing its own power and destination towards a spirit other feelings, from its power of placing itself in imagito which its destination is unknown, and in which all its nation in the situation of those to whom other objects of powers are folded up.
And she will perceive how feel pain and pleasure are real. But this visionary conception ings from her highest being may thus mix with those of of feelings which we have not known-though it enlarges humblest sort, in such a manner that they shall be our understanding of ourselves and of humankind, (for known only in the undivided emotion of one entire affec- if our understanding were rigorously restricted to our tion. She will thus understand in a manner no reason own experience, we must tread the earth in ignorance) could ever teach her, to what a moral world we belong, is always an unsubstantial knowledge. It is no foundawith what a moral purpose we are framed, when she tion for virtue. It is no strength to support us in the finds that the tenderest and most human of all her feel harder tasks of duty. But the same feelings which we ings opens up in her mind the consciousness of its sublimer may thus ideally and imperfectly conceive, when they nature, graciously blending in a mother's love the under- have once been our own, when they have been made real standing of that sanctity in our being which the austere by the strong possession they have taken of our souls, and awful tongue of religion is at other times required to directed upon real objects, then they become ever after a proclaim, and often proclaims unheard. These higher part of the strength of our nature. To speak of the case
perceptions making part of such a state of mind, do not just supposed, he who has felt remorse, has in that rei destroy its simplicity. They imply nothing of that membrance a surer strength for his future virtue, than
secondary activity of thought or will which I represented | he had while he only imagined and dreaded it. We may
consider all other human beings, whose situation is dif- without difficulty, we may trace the manner in which ferent from our own, as proving the strength, the depths, the design is accomplished. the capacities of our common nature, under circumstances of which we can only imagine and conjecture the impression. They are making themselves acquainted with, and realizing in their own breasts, its powers and its
INFLUENCE OF TIME ON SORROW. miseries, the secrets of its high and awful constitution. When the first burst of Grief has subsided, the sufferThey are collectively gathering up that moral knowledge ing that remains takes properly the name of Sorrow. But which is the only effectual support of moral opinion. In there are many tempers which prolong this state ; and this manner, humankind is going on making experience having once received deep cause of sorrow, will not again of its own nature. And each of us, in his confined and lift themselves up from it, but, nourishing their pain, partial experience, must look upon himself as very im- stretch one continuous gloom of melancholy over their perfectly capable of understanding that common nature remaining life. One might be disposed to think that which he bears indeed in his soul; which may make itself there are few losses, and few minds, to which this exa little felt in sympathy with the passions, the desires, treme prolongation of sorrow can be natural, and that in the thoughts, the sufferings of others, but can never fully many instances where it takes place, the mind itself bas disclose itself, till the presence of the real objects of those been too busy in seeking the means of continuing its own feelings shall rouse up those possible feelings into reali- affliction.' Time is the bringer of consolation ; nor does ties.
it at all detract from the sincerity or the poignancy of I have said that the first state of passion is 'simple grief, nor from the strength of love, that it has received emotion. The passion may end here, or it may not; consolation from time. For this allaying of bitterness is there are instances, of which I have mentioned a few, in effected, not simply by the interposition of other objects, which it appeared to be most fitting that the passion bringing other thoughts, feelings, and cares, and thus deshould proceed no farther than this first simple affection livering the heart from grief by gaining it from its prisof the sensibility. But this, as I observed, appears to be tine affections the ready alleviation of all sorrow to minds not in our nature the ultimate purpose for which these of little capacity of passion, and that which has been impressions on our feeling are made; and generally we most spoken of by shallow moralists. But time, without are able to show that they are important, not only by the injuring the reverence of the first affection, will bring present state of mind they produce, but by their results, relief by the natural course of the human spirit, as may tending to produce an arousing of active power in the be understood by considering some of the circumstances soul. And it will be easy to see how much we are aware which constitute the exceeding bitterness that is felt in of this general law and purpose of our nature, by obser- the freshness of grief, and the change which, in these ving in what manner we are affected by those instances respects, is necessarily, made by time. Thus, time acts in in which the first impression is made, and the result part by the habitual conviction which it brings on in the that should follow does not take effect. As, for example, mind of the sufferer, that the calamity he deplores is fixed if a man had received some heavy blow in his fortunes, and unalterable, and that, in struggling against it, he is that he should be struck with consternation and pain at striving with necessity and with the laws of nature. For the intelligence of a misfortune which shook the security passion, in its transport, does not bow even under these on which his mind had been accustomed to rest, and inflexiblei laws. Grief, while its loss is yet recent, made the future look threatening, we should easily for- struggles not merely with the pangs, but with the reality give. We should think it natural, and perhaps even of its affliction. It éannot believe at first that he who fitting. But what should we say of him if, from that was alive is dead. The living image still lives in the feeling of his calamity, he did not rise to exertion of his soul, and terribly returns upon it in its life and beauty, powers commensurate with the extent of his injury; if though the body lies stretched in death ; and there is for he rested in that fear and grief, that first sense of dismay a long time a dreadful and agonizing struggle between which is useful while it serves to fix in the mind the the thoughts of that which has been, and that which is, conception of the magnitude of the injury to be redeemed, before the mind can 'tame down its own vivid recollecand to arouse all its faculties from their indolence of plea- tions, and subdue the image of life, by the shadow of sure and accustomed ease, but which is known to us at once mortality. Its first effort is to bring that struggle to as pernicious and dishonouring, if it is prolonged but a little rest, which it will do with time. But when this sort beyond its most necessary season, is recognised as fatal the of illusion, which almost unsettles the belief of what has moment we begin to perceive that it has laid prostrate that happened, is dispelled or overcome, there still remains will which it should have provoked to the utmost effort what was imixed with it the impatience of the mind to of its strength ? In such a case, we say that the man submit itself to its evil. ..- This, again, is a feeling which is was too weak for his misfortune ; and the stopping short contrary to nature and reality, and which therefore must of the mind in the first stage of emotion shocks us as be understood by considering the nature of passion. with the discovery of some moral fault. What should Under a calamity which has just befallen, there is the we think of the sensibility of a father who, on seeing his same feeling which possesses the mind under a calamity child in danger, should be thrilled indeed with horror certainly announced and inevitable ; a disposition to conand fear at what he saw, but make no effort for his tend against it, with an obscure imagination of the possirescue ? That anguish of fear seems then to us to produce bility that, by struggling, it may get free from that iron its proper effect when it carries him with one strong im- necessity by which it is held. It is no more than a man pulse into the heart of flames for his child's deliverance. writhing and galling bimself in the chains which he can
We are perfectly prepared, then, by natural feeling to not break. Now, this impatient reluctance against his judge how far that first emotion may go, and when it fate, which a brave man may feel for a time who is unmust change from passive feeling to active power. « We expectedly adjudged to death, but which he overcomes, perfectly understand, in such instances, the provision of merely by the conviction that it is inevitable, is precisely nature, and see in what manner the primary impression, what takes place, though with still greater illusion, in the though it should be useless in itself, may become useful mind on which insupportable calamity has fallen. It by its immediate effects.
struggles under its load, as if it were possible, by strug. The purpose which we can trace so intelligibly in in-gling, to shake it off. It strives, in the impatience and stances like these, extends widely through human nature impotence of its grief, against that fate which has not and life. Sometimes it requires the most sagacious and spoken merely, but which has accomplished its decree. learned observer of nature to perceive that it is fulfilled. This is not the understanding, but the unsubdued blind But every mind must also be full of examples, in which, will, that seems still to feel a power in itself, when all