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atmosphere, at each new flight it must spring again from department of the community, have attracted the eulogies some resting-place. Let the author of the book, which of all whose commendation is desirable. has suggested these remarks, qualify his enthusiasm with But while such is the general sentiment in regard to this recollection, and persevere in his good task. There thls body in its present state, there is reason to fear, that are only three means of attaining his end. The first is, prejudices still exist in the minds of not a few as to some Agitation; the second, Agitation; the third, Agitation. of its founders. They are spoken of as good men, but as
Swan's SELECT VIEWS OF THE LAKES OF SCOTLAND.- turbulent and fanatical; their zeal is considered as by We have for some time had our eye upon Mr Swan, as far too vehement for its object; and their aim, notwithone of the most accurate and elegant, if not indeed the standing their high professions of entire devotedness to the most accurate and elegant engraver of botanical drawings glory of God, is asserted to have been the attainment of: in Scotland. We have also traced with sincere pleasure popular influence, or the gratification of party feeling. bis gradual rise in a higher department of his art-land- Nothing can be better adapted to remove these prejudices, scape engraving. We can trace his progressive improve- as far as they regard Ebenezer Erskine, whose character ment even in the work before us, the third part of which has been principally affected by them, than the volumo is immeasurably superior to its predecessors. The other before us, which is a well-written performance, and retwo were more than respectable, but this is elegant. markable for its calm, judicious, and charitable spirit. We Messrs Fleming and Swan have now presented us with here see him acting under the strongest convictions of duty,, views of the interminable Loch Lomond, in all its vary- happiest in the tranquil scenes of the pastoral functions, ing aspects. They bave penetrated into Perthshire, and and walking humbly with God in the sequestered spot led us through the wild magnificence of Loch Katrine; where a great part of his life was spent. A Diary, round the lonely shores of Loch Auchray, which, in its written by himself in a peculiar kind of short hand, has surpassing gentleness, lies girdled round by stern, stony been deciphered with great labour, and has contributed to
mountains, like some feudal beauty, guarded by the rude enrich the work. In it we see, not the zealot, but the - forms and faces, but faithful hearts of her father's retain- man of God; not envy working, nor revenge plotting ; .
ers; up to Loch Venachoir, fair to the eye, but beneath but contrition weeping in secret places, .faith embracing whose specious surface dwells the dread Water-Horse. the promises, and love and joy delighting themselves in Mr Swan's style of engraving is still, if any thing, rather God. Many affecting incidents in his family and neightoo timid and anxious_his lights and shadows are apt to bourhood are here alluded to, and the workings of his mind.
want breadth, and do not fade into each other with sufi respecting them are depicted with every symptom of sinE cient softness. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, (for cerity.
which we suspect the painter is in part to blame,) Mr To the adherents to the Secession this work will be Swan already stands high as an engraver, and may stand peculiarly interesting ; but the good of other parties will still higher if he do himself justice.
read it with pleasure, as a book which shows the influSKETCH OF THE LITERARY AND COMMERCIAL SOCIETY ence of Christian principle to support and invigorate the , or Glasgow.-- We notice this brochure by our indefati- mind, and the power of devotion working in sorrow and gable and talented friend Atkinson, merely as an excuse reproach, in suffering and death. It contains, besides for adverting to the existence of a society which has held the incidents connected with the rise of the Secession, the noiseless tenor of its way in Glasgow since 1806, and many interesting particulars on the state of the Church yet has witnessed the developement of more talent than of Scotland in the beginning of the last century; the, many which make a noise in the world. It has been rebellion in 1715 and 1745; and striking anecdotes graced with the co-operation of a Campbell and a Mylne. respecting individuals. Of the latter, we present our, It was to it that Dr Chalmers first expressed his views readers with one as a specimen, in which Mr Erskine of the Cause and Cure of Pauperism. Mr Owen, too— is a chief actor, and we are sorry our limits will not although this be more a matter of curiosity than import- permit us to give more. ance-first expounded his system within its walls. Many “ At one time, after travelling, towards the end of the others might be mentioned.
week, from Portmoak to the banks of the Forth, on his We have now gone over our last importations from way to Edinburgh, he, with several others, was prevented Glasgow, and when we add that they are merely a fair by a storm from crossing that frith. Thus obliged to reaverage specimen of its literary labours, we are sure that inain in Fife during the Sabbath, he was employed to! the reader will agree with us that there is a good spirit preach, it is believed, in Kinghorn. Conformably to his at work in that great community, which cannot fail to divine countenance and aid in the work of the day; but.
usual practice, he prayed earnestly in the morning for the bring forth good fruit.
suddenly missing his note-book, he knew not what to do. His thoughts, however, were directed to that command,
• Thou shalt not kill ;' and having studied the subject with Life and Diary of the Rev. Ebenezer Erskine, Father of as much care as the time would permit, he delivered a short the Secession Church. By the Rev. Donald Fraser. returned to his lodging, he gave strict injunctions to the
sermon on it in the forenoon after the lecture. Having 12mo. Pp. 513. Edinburgh. William Oliphant. servant that no one should be allowed to see bim during 1831.
the interval of worship. A stranger, however, who was
also one of the persons detained by the state of the weather, The liberal feeling of the present day is one of its many expressed an earnest desire to see the minister ; and baving gratifying characters; the fury of contending parties in with difficulty obtained admittance, appeared much agita the church of God has passed away; a wise and good ted, and asked him, with great eagerness, whether he knew
man is now respected as he deserves, whatever is the de- bim, or had ever seen or heard of him. On receiving assu* nomination he bears; and he who should apply
to any racter, and history, the gentleman proceeded to state that
rance that he was totally unacquainted with his face, cha-' 1 individual, or assembly, the terms of abuse once common
his sermon on the sixth command had reached his conin disputes, would be laughed at as the dupe of antiqua- science ; that he was a murderer ; that, being the second. ted prejudice, or abhorred as the slave of a rancorous son of a Highland laird, he had some time before, from base, bigotry. These remarks are especially applicable to the and selfish motives, cruelly suffocated his elder brother, who, change in public feeling towards the Secession. The slept in the same bed with him; and that wow he had no number, general intelligence, and pious habits of its ad- peace of mind, and wished to surrender himself to justice, berents, and the prominent place which they have taken to suffer the punishment due to his horrid and unnatural in all measures of holy utility, have raised them to a due crinæ:. Mr Erskine asked him if any other person knew place in public estimation : while the education and any thing of his guiit. His answer was, that, so far as he
was aware, not a single individual had the least suspicion talents, the diligence and fidelity of their pastors, and ot'it ; on which the good man exhorted him to be deeply their influence in maintaining masa and order in a large affected with a sense of his atrocious sin, to make ay imme
diate application to the blood of sprinkling, and to bring consist are before us. Wilson, like Audubon, is identified forth fruits meet for repentance; but, at the same time, with his writings. At present we can only remark, that the since, in Providence, his crime bad bitherto remained a
birds described in this work have been classified by the secret , not to disclose it, or give himself up to public
editor, according to the most approved systein of The unhappy gentleman embraced this well-intended counsel in all its parts, became truly pious, and maintained a
arrangement. The bulk of the notes has been reserved friendly correspondence with this servant of the Most for the concluding volume. It is enough to say that they High God' in future life. It is added, that after he with. are to be furnished by him who first created the study of drew, the minister had the happiness to recover the manu natural history in Edinburgh. But we have been farscript formerly missing; and, in consequence, preached in ther given to understand, that it is Professor Jameson's the afternoon on the topic he had originally in view."
intention to add an appendix of the arctic birds of AmeIt may be thought by some that the advice was too rica, the materials for which have been chiefly furnished lenient, and that such a monster should not have been by the enterprising discoverer, and distinguished naturalsuffered to live to enjoy the fruits of his villainy; but if ist, Dr Richardson. As a matter of course, the professor he was a sincere penitent, his crime would be ever before will avail himself of the valuable contributions of the him in the deepest anguish; and if this was only a tem
Prince of Musignano to the Italian journals, as far as they porary awakening of terror and remorse, Providence bear upon his subject. would, in some other way, make his sin to find him out. We present our readers with a few extracts, which are
The extracts from the Diary will be pleasing to pious submitted to them simply as specimens of Wilson's style. readers. . , It shows the delight which Mr Erskine felt | The first leaves a favourable impression of his powers of in prayer, and how he was tried with that bitterness of describing natural scenery. heart under which true Christians often groan. We “ Though generally dissuaded from venturing by myself must own, however, that there are some passages in it on so long a voyage down the Ohio in an open skiff, I which strike us as too familiar for the public eye ; and considered
this mode, with all its inconveniences, as the as likely to strengthen the objections of many against the
most favourable to my researches, and the most suitable to publication of such writings. Mr Erskine's writing it my funds; and. I determined accordingly. Two days before in short hand, and his discontinuing it during the most
my departure, the Alleghany river was one wide torrent of
broken ice, and I calculated on experiencing considerable important and busy period of his life, seem to intimate difficulties on this score. My stock of provisions consisted that he had lost those impressions of the utility of the of some biscuit and cheese, and a bottle of cordial, presented practice which he once had. It is plain, from its whole me by a gentleman of Pittsburg; my gun, trunk, and strain, that the idea of its being published never once
great coat, occupied one end of the boat; I had a small tin, entered his mind. It is said, that to the pure all things are
occasionally to bale her, and to take my beverage from the pure; but what is published is laid open to the inspection Pitt, I launched into the stream, and soon winded away
Ohio with; and, bidding adieu to the smoky contines of of all; and it is easy to judge what unhappy effects, on
among the hills that everywhere enclose this noble river. some classes, the indiscreet disclosure of the secret con The weather was warm and serene, and the river, like a fessions, and fears, and struggles of good men may have. mirror, except where floating masses of ice spotted its surIt will make many attach the idea of sullenness to men face, and which required some care to steer clear of; but they were accustomed to venerate; and of gloom and these, to my surprise, in less than a day's sailing, totally terror to a religious course, whose ways they have been disappeared. Far from being concerned at my new situatold are ways of pleasantness.
tion, I felt my heart expand with joy at the novelties which We wish the editor had woven the most interesting of the red bird on the banks as I passed, and contemplatel
surrounded me; I listened with pleasure to the whistling passages of this Diary into the narrative, as illustrations the forest scenery, as it receded, with increasing delight. of particular scenes or virtues. Thus the feeling of dull-The smoke of the numerous sugar camps, rising lazily ness and sameness, which is apt to be excited by frequently among the mountains, gave great effect to the varying landrecurring extracts, would have been avoided; and thus scape; and the grotesque log cabins, that here and there Mr Erskine would have been presented to us in a way houses by the sublimity of the impending mountains. If
opened from the woods, were diminished into mere dogmore vivid, and what he did to men would have been shown in connexion with his purposes before God. Upon hills, whose irregular summits are seldom more than three
you suppose to yourself two parallel ranges of forest-covered the whole, we consider this book as a respectable piece of or four miles apart, winding through an immense extent biography. The style is clear and correct, the refiections of country, and enclosing a river half a mile wide, which are judicious and appropriate, and the good sense and alternately washes the steep declivity on one side, and leaves candour of the writer are everywhere apparent.
a rich forest-clad bottom on tbe other, of a mile or so in breadth, you will bave a pretty correct idea of the appear
ance of the Ohio. The banks of these rich flats are from American Ornithology ; or, the Natural History of the twenty to sixty and eighty feet high; and even these last Birds of the United States. By Alexander Wilson
were within a few feet of being overflowed in December, and Charles Lucian Bonaparte. Edited by Robert
1808.” Jameson, Professor of Natural History in the Univer There is great beauty in his description of a species of sity of Edinburgh. In four Volumes. Vol. I. (Con- owl-particularly where he speaks of its manner of flight. stable's Miscellany, Vol. LXVIII.) Edinburgh. 1831. “ The bird which I am about to describe was taken in
We last week introduced to the British public the this situation, and presented to me by a friend. I kept it Ornithological Biography of the enthusiastic Audubon. in the room beside ine for some time, daring which its And, thanks to the oldest and best beloved of our mis-usual position was such as I have given it. Its eyelids were cellanies, we have now an opportunity of drawing atten
either half sbut, or slowly and alternately opening and shuttion to his master—the first who devoted his life to the ting, as it suffering from the glare of day; but no sooner illustration of American ornithology. Much has been and animated; its tull and globular eyes shoue like those of
was the sun set, than its whole appearance became lively added to our knowledge in that department since Wilson's a cat; and it often lowered its head, in the manner of a cock death, but no one individual has yet furnished the tithe when preparing to fight, moving it from side to side, and of the amount of his contributions.
And for accuracy
also vertically, as if reconnoitring you with great sharpness. of observation, and lively sense of the poetry of nature,
In flying through the room, it shifted from place to place we question if even Audubon equals him.
with the silence of a spirit, (if I may be allowed the exmerit of the Prince of Musignano consists in his enlight- and soft'as to occasion little or no friction with the air,
pression,) the plumage of its wings being so extremely fiue oned love and liberal patronage of science.
wise provision of nature, bestowed on the whole genus, to We postpone all detailed criticism of Hetherington's ele- enable them, without giving alarm, to seize their prey in gant and interesting biography of Wilson, and also of his the night. For an hour or two in the evening, and about writings, until the four volumes of which this work is to break of day, it tlew about with great activity. When
angry, it snapped its bill repeatedly with violence, and so thus rendered independent of illustrations, by the opporloud as to be heard in the adjoining room, swelling out its tunities afforded of consulting stuffed specimens. eyes to their full dimensions, and lowering its head as before described. It swallowed its food hastily, in large mouthfuls; and never was observed to drink.”
Memoir relative to Itinerating Libraries. By the Rev. The following passage is lively and amusing :
William Brown. Edinburgh, 1831. Crows have been employed to catch crows by the fol Fourteen years ago, a scheme was commenced by Mr. lowing stratagem: A live erow is pinned by the wings Samuel Brown of Haddington, for supplying the county down to the ground on his back, by means of two sharp, of East Lothian with as many libraries as might suffice forked sticks. Thus situated, his cries are loud and inces for the whole population : sixty libraries, it was reckonsant, particularly if any other crows are within view, ed, would complete the object, and when properly distriThese, sweeping down about him, are instantly grappled by the prostrate prisoner, by the same instinctive impulse buted, leave no individual more remote than one inile and that urges a drowning person to grasp at every thing within a half. Each library was to consist of 50 volumes; and his reach. Having disengaged the game from his clutches, though “ the primary object was to promote the interests the trap is again ready for another experiment; and by pin- of religion, and a large proportion of the books was acning down each captive, successively, as soon as taken, in a cordingly of a religious character, yet there has also been short time you will probably have a large flock screaming a considerable proportion of history, biography, travels, above you, in concert with the outrageous prisoners below. and popular works on the arts and sciences.” Mr Brown Many farmers, however, are content with hanging up skins, or dead carcasses, of crows in their corn fields, in has since proceeded in this benevolent design steadily and . terrorem ; others depend altogether on the gun, keeping one
with unceasing success. We are told in this Memoir by of their people supplied with ammunition, and constantly his brother, that forty of the libraries have now been on the look-out. In hard winters, the crows suffer severely'; established only twenty being wanted for the comso that they have been observed to fall down in the fields, plement to East Lothian. The expense of each, incluand on the roads, exhausted with cold and hunger. In one ding book-case, catalogue, and issuing-books, appears to of these winters, and during a long-continued deep snow, have been betwixt L. 10 and L. 12; and the whole amount inore than six hundred crows were shot on the carcass of a dead horse, which was placed at a proper distance from the has been raised by subscription. Can it be doubted that stable, from a hole of which the discharges were made this is a precious gitt to a peasantry naturally thoughtful, The premiums awarded for these, with the price paid for prepared for knowledge by this, and eager to turn it to the quills, produced nearly as much as the original value of account by achieving such a portion of worldly comforts the horse, besides, as the inan bimself assured me, saving as may somewhat correspond to the desires that are insefeathers sufficient for filling a bed. « The crow is easily raised and domesticated; and it is is a philanthropist of the true stamp? His path is one of
parable from intelligence ? Can it be doubted that here only when thus reudered unsuspicious of, and placed on terms of familiarity with, man, that the true traits of his novelty; but invention implies heat; and here it can be genius and native disposition fully develope themselves. In no other than the heat of benevolence. this state be soon learns to distinguish all the members of There are two features in the scheme that distinthe family; Aies towards the gate, screaming, at the ap- guish it from one merely einployed in the raising of chaproach of a stranger; learns to open the door by alighting ritable funds, and the conversion of money into books, on the latch ; attends regularly at the stated hours of din- and a plan of library issues. First, the libraries are to ner and breakfast, which he appears punctually to recollect; itinerate ; each remains at one station for a period of two is extremely poisy and loquacious; imitates ibe sound of various words pretty distinctly; is a great thief and hoarder years ; and then gives place to another from a neighbourof curiosities, hiding in holes, corners, and crevices, every
ing district. Some contrivance of the kind is obviously loose article he can carry off, particularly small pieces of requisite against the satiety incident to a small collection metal, corn, bread, and food of all kinds; is fond of the of fifty volumes ; but it will require an unremitting susociety of his master, and will kuow him even after a long perintendence. Nert
, the libraries have a principle of absence, of which the following is a remarkable instance, self-production, which is thus described in the Memoir : and may be relied on as a fact : A very worthy gentleman, “ It is proposed to issue the books the first year that a now (1811) living in the Gennesee country, but who, at the time alluded to, resided on the Delaware, a few miles division is to take place, at the rate of a pevny a-volume; below Easton, bad raised a crow, with whose tricks and but as a subscription, however small, might essentially society he used frequently to amuse himself. This crow impede the success of the scheme, and as it is of immense lived long in the family; but at length disappeared, having, consequence to bring the books within the reach of the as was then supposed, been shot by some vagrant gunner, or whole population, particularly the young, they will be destroyed by accident. About eleven months after this, as issued gratuitously the second year. By such a system, the gentleman, one morning, in company with several others, was standing on the river shore, a number of crows combined with the plan of lending out the books when happening to pass by, one of them left the Alock, and Aying new to subscribers of 58., each division may on an avedirectly towards the company, alighted on the gentleman's rage be expected to produce 25s. a-year, wbich, as the shoulder, and began to gabble away with great volubility, number of libraries increases, will prove the fruitful. as one long absent friend naturally enough dves on meeting parent of new libraries.” Some illustrations of this with another. On recovering from his surprise, the geu- principle are added in the Memoir : a capital of 1.5000 tleman instantly recognised his old acquaintance, and en-a-year, with a return of 25s. yearly on each library, deavoured, by several civil but sly maneuvres, to lay hold would in 50 years supply 990,152 libraries, in place of of him; but the crow, not altogether relishing quite so much
And in reference to counfamiliarity, having now bad a taste of the sweets of liberty,
25,000 without the return. cautiously eluded all bis attempts; and suddenly glancing ties, L.50 a-year would in 25 years give 702 libraries, or his eye on his distant companions, mounted in the air after one division of books to every 400 individuals, in a po. them, soon overtook and mingled with them, and was never pulation of 280,000. The Memoir is written not to exafterwards seen to return.”
tol the author's brother, but to recommend the adoption The whole of Wilson's and Bonaparte's text, together excite the zeal of an individual ; and such a one, we fear,
of the plan in other counties. But the first requisite is to with the notes and additions of the editor, are comprised is not to be found in all counties as in East Lothian. The in four volumes of the Miscellany. This is a bargain. itinerating libraries are yet a solitary experiment in one The illastrations of the work are publishing (an entirely county ;-Jike that of the parallelograins in Lanark ;independent speculation) in a neat form, and at a cheap though'unlike the latter, they are unassailable by any rate, by Captain Brown. But we trust that some ar
reasonable objection. rangements are soon to be made, by which our College Museum shall be opened to the public at large, at least to all who matriculate ; and residenters in Edinburgh bel.
BREAKING THE LINE.
The American Mechanic's Magazine and Journal of sulted the original authorities, and availed himself of tho Public Internal Improvement. 8vo. No. X, for November criticism of modern historians. His style is in general
We can recommend this work with a safe 1830. Boston : S. N. Dickenson. Glasgow : John
It has already reached a second, and we hope The American Annals of Education and Instruction, to see it reach a third, edition.
8vo. No. II. September 1830. Boston : Carter and
Hender. Glasgow: John Reid. The American Monthly Magazine. No. IX. Decem- The History of the Reformation and Church in Scotland, ber 1830. Boston : Pierce and Parker. Glasgow :
till the General Assembly of Glasgow. By T. Stephen. .
12mo. Pp. 259. Edinburgh. John Boyd. 1831. John Reid. The first of these scarcely falls under our notice, yet of day, we can scarcely, with all our liberality, conceive
An ingenious piece of special pleading. At this time deserves the attention of every one the least interested in mechanical improvement; the present number is in a
a mind so constituted as seriously to entertain the views
propounded in this work. great measure filled with communications and tables concerning rail-roads, canals, &c., from which may be gleaned much important information regarding the success of
MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE. rail-roads on the other side of the Atlantic.
We scarcely imagined that the Americans were making such extensive exertions in the cause of education, until
MILITARY MEMORANDA. we read this number of the American annals of education.
By an Amateur, The attention which the subject seems to meet with both from the legislature and the country at large, will not fail of producing most important results in the rising ge Some time ago a mighty fuss and hubbub was made on neration. The work before us is entirely filled with the subject of breaking the line, as it is called; and a great essays, papers, and letters, on education. The second gun of the press, charged to the very muzzle, with all article is a review of the system of Frederick Thiersch, as manner of quibbling and sophistry, was let off in defence sanctioned by the King of Bavaria, and gives a tolerable of the claims of the late Mr Clerk, of Eldin, as the good analysis of both the work and the system. The third alleged discoverer of this celebrated maneuvre. We have article is on the philosophy of language, in which we have no intention to revive the discussion as to the pretensions language traced not only to its first roots, but even to the of Mr Clerk, and the probability or improbability of his cause of these roots, in a manner that could be understood having communicated, or caused to be communicated, to by a child of ten years of age. The fourth article is a Lord Rodney the idea of breaking the line, and thus. review of Hall's Lectures on Schoolkeeping, which demon- cutting off a portion of the enemy's force; firstly, because strates very clearly, how absurd it is that, when an ap- the principle of this operation was familiarly known prenticeship is required for all other trades and profes- long before either Mr Clerk or his pretensions were beard sions, that none whatever is required for a schoolmaster. of; secondly, because it has not been unfolded with scienIn America this idea is exploded, and we are told of one tific precision, and with the necessary limitations, in that school (for teachers) that manufactures fifty dominies gentleman's treatise on naval tactics ; thirdly, because per annum. The article is very well written, and we there never has been a decisive battle fought, either on wish to see it, as well as the lectures of Hall, in the land or on water, where the general principle on which hands of every Scottish schoolmaster. In the seventh this manœuvre is founded, was not more or less reduced article, we have an interesting account of the progress of to practice. To satisfy ourselves that the principle was deaf and dumb institutions in that country, a place where, familiarly known, we have only to read the apvals of until lately, the idea of teaching “ deaf mutes" was reck- war, and, not to go very far back, to turn, in a particular oned almost as Quixotical as sailing in a balloon. The manner, to the history of the campaigns of Frederick. The tenth article, on the progress of female education, is wor-whole secret of this great monarch's success, consisted in thy the notice of all who are opposed to the practice of operating, with the greatest mass of his force, a combined giving females an extensive and varied education ; in fact, effort on the decisive point. This is the fundamental we cannot do better than quote the words of the Western principle, by the application of which all military opera Review. “ If this world is ever to become a happier and tions are good, and without which they are vicious ;-—this is better place, woman, well educated, disciplined, and prin- the principle, by the application of which Frederick gained cipled, sensible of her influence, and wise and benevolent the decisive victories of Leuthen and Rosbach, and Daun to exert it aright, must be the original mover in the great defeated the Prussian monarch himself at Hobenkirch; work."
-this is the principle, by the application of wbich, at a Regarding the third of these Transatlantic magazines, later period, Bonaparte destroyed three successive armies of we think the style exceedingly Aippant and vague ; there Austrians, with a force numerically inferior to any one of is not a good paper in it, if we except the review of Galt's the three;—this is the principle, by the application of which, Life of Byron. The first article in the number is “ The in a greater or less degree, all decisive victories have been Wife's Appeal,” and we will give it entire the first time we i gained, in ancient as well as modern times ;-and this is have room for it, as being the best piece of fugitive Ame- the principle which, applied to the tactical combinations rican poetry that we have lately seen.
of fleets, has rendered naval victories in recent times so much more decisive than they ever were at any former
period. It is, in fact, of universal application. Jomini, Historical Memoirs of John Knox ; containing a Sketch speaking of the battle off Cape St Vincent, says, " Les
of Scottish History from the Earliest Times to the Period Anglais remportèrent cette victoire, comme celle d'Ouesof his Death ; with an Account of the Reformation in sant, pour avoir percé la ligne ennemie; car, nous le Scotland. Second Edition. Leith. James Burnet. répétons, le premier talent d'un général est de paralyser 1831.
une partie des forces de son adversaire, pour tomber, arec
toutes les siennes, sur le point qui lui offre de plus grandes This is an excellent little book, of modest pretensions. chances de succès. Jervis triompha par l'application de It professes no more than to make the history of our principe qui guida Bonaparte à Montenotte et à Castiggreat Reformer more patent than could be hoped for if lione; sur mer comme sur terre, les memes resultats sont pro-, it were confined to publications so expensive as that of duits par les memes causes. (Hist. Critiq, et Milit. des, Dr M'Crie. The author has thought for himself, con- Guerres de la Révol. tom. x. p. 198.)
Clerk, however, even when, in a later edition of his work, having pointed out a new application of an old and wellhe comes to discuss the manæuvre of breaking the line, does known principle. We are free to confess, however, that not perceive the universality of the principle on which it we have as yet met with no evidence to induce us to depends, nor state the conditions necessary to ensure its award to our countryman even this secondary bonour. success. The maneuvre of breaking the line is, per se, of no On the contrary, our opinion is, that the revolution in arail whatever : it is, in fact, just as broad as it is long : Daval tactics, which proved the forerunner of so many for if the headmost ships of the line, part of which is in- triumphs, was in a great measure, if not altogether, attritersected, are immediately wore and tacked, the ships butable to a fortunate accident- an opportune shift in the which have pierced the line, may be doubled upon in their wind, and a tempting opening in the enemy's line. If turn, and overpowered by the repetition of their own Rodney had left England impressed with the importance maneuvre. In judging of the expediency of having re of this maneuvre, would he not have tried it in the precourse to this manæuvre, the first question to be settled, vious battles off Martinico and St Lucia, on both of is a question of time alone. Before the headmost ships of which occasions he had the advantage, as it was then the enemy's line can wear and execute the inverse ma- considered, of the weathergage? And, if he had undernæavre, will there be sufficient time to disable and subdue stood it, even when he did attempt it late in the action the ships which have been cut off? And this can only of the 12th April, 1782, would he have contented himbe solved by the assailant having his fleet so disposed as self with merely passing through the French line, and to enable him to fall upon a portion of the adverse line engaging their rearmost ships to leeward? But be this with the whole, or at all events the greater part, of his as it may, Rodney's practical exemplification of some of force; in other words, to operate, with the greatest pos- the advantages of the manæuvre directed the attention of sible amount of force, a combined effort on a decisive point. Daval men to the subject, when all the theoretical speculaThe conditions essential to success in every case, are time, tions of philosophers would have been disregarded; and it and a superior force capable of being immediately directed was reserved for his illustrious successors not merely to reap against the point of attack. To neglect these conditions, the full benefit of the discovery which he had opened up, is to expose one's self to almost certain destruction; while, but likewise to show within what limits, and upon what on the other hand, when duly calculated and observed, the conditions, it could safely be executed. These, we repeat, result can scarcely fail to prove decisive. It has been said, are time, and a disposable superior force ready to act that there is nothing invariable in the art of combats. against a given portion of the enemy's line. Villeneuve's But this is a great mistake. Circumstances change, and skilful disposition at Trafalgar shows, however, that even the modes of application vary along with them; but the these conditions may, in certain circumstances, be in a principle is immutable; and no great result can ever be great measure neutralized ; and that superior discipline, obtained where it is departed from. Compare the battles courage, and pertinacity, are, after all, among the surest which have proved decisive, and influenced or determined guarantees of victory. the fates of nations and empires, with those bootless butcheries which have produced no other result but carnage and bloodshed, and it will be found that, in the one case, the principle was more or less acted upon, and in
THE FLOWER-GATHERER. the other totally neglected. In the early campaigns of the French Revolutionary war, for instance, the most sangai
No. II. nary combats were fought, and the contest was carried on with the utmost acharnement and ferocity; but no decided loiter a little longer in the gardens of the sunny south.
RESUMING our delightful avocation, we feel'inclined to advantage was gained on either side, because the true There is a warmth of passion in the natives of these principles of military tactics were not then understood. regionsless enduring perhaps than what is felt by us Instead of concentrating their masses for a great effort on a given point nearest to the enemy's line of communica- | Northmen—but so intense while it lasts as almost to be
stow a moral character upon the mere promptings of tion with the base of his operations, generals then divided and dispersed their forces into cordons, penetrable at every mastery is to pass away like a summer's cloud.
We cannot fancy that a thing of such sovereiga
We point, or into detached portions, equally incapable of giving involuntarily attribute to it “ strength and length of or receiving timely support; and hence battles at this period were nothing more than a series of affairs of posts, in which days.". Alas! the same glowing temperament which success generally alternated from side to side one part gave it birth destroys it next moment, by yielding to of an army perhaps pursuing while the other was retreat
a new impulse. It is only in the passionate outpourings ing, and of course were productive of no definite or decis of the poet that these visitings find the eternity which sive result. But when Bonaparte appeared upon the scene, breathes the very fever-fit of love, and communicates its
seems their due. Here is at least one strain which and at once modelled his operations on the true principles both of strategies and tactics, war assumed a totally different own heat to the cool atmosphere : character, and victory seemed to attend upon bis standards. 0, balmy air! Thou murmurer, In like manner, while the old system of fighting at sea Flitting, sigbing everywhere ! continued to be followed, and fleets met and passed on Through those elms with sweet accord, opposite tacks, battles had no result, and victory was little Gently sound to mine idol adored. else than a name. But when the principle of operating a combined effort, with a superior force, upon a decisive Go, balmy air, and gently blow, point, was once recognised and acted upon, then com And on her to-night bestow, menced the epoch of our naval glory, and then naval Who to sleep will soothe my woe, battles led to important results.
Thy divine repose now. The principle was not new in military tactics ; for both Marlborough and Frederick were familiar with it, and O seek that I her favour share; obtained their most glorious successes by its practical ap Since thou flittest everywhere, plication. But it was new in its application to naval To her window go, and there tactics at the period of the change of system to wbich
Let thy pinions close now. we have already referred ; and if Clerk had really any share in bringing about this change, he would be entitled Weary wind, who wanderest to the distinction of having deserved well of his country; Through the leaves and mine unrest, for, assuredly, next to the merit of original discovery, Joy long past and love unblest, wbich was here wholly out of the question, is that of
Mournest through yon willow