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Justice of the peace, 46, 47, 126.
Juvenile Court, 127.


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Kansas, strife in, 432.
Keystone State, the, 23.
Kidnapping: the forcible taking and re-

moving of a person for evil purposes.
King: The titles, king, emperor, czar, etc.,

are applied to the personal rulers who
in monarchies control the government,
appoint the principal officers of State,
and to whom, in theory at least, these
persons are responsible. The amount
of power actually exercised, and the
responsibility borne by the ruler, vary
in different countries, and determine
the classification of the governments

therein exercised.
King, Rufus, 352.
Knowledge of government, 11.
Knox, Henry, Secretary of War, 441.

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Judges in Pennsylvania, 80, 129, 130,

132, 133, 135, 136.
Judges in United States Courts, 312,

314, 315, 317; in Pennsylvania, 314,

Judgment: the. decision or sentence

pronounced by the court upon any
matter contained in the record, or in
any case tried by the court. In civil
cases the decision is called the judg-
ment, and in criminal cases the sen-
tence, The carrying out of the sen-
tence or judgment of the court is

known as the execution, 124.
Judicial power in Pennsylvania, wherein

vested, 125.
Judicial power of the United States, 310,

311, 312-320.
Judicial proceedings in each State have

faith and credit in all, 321.
Juries, in Pennsylvania, a justice's jury,

46; a coroner's jury, 78; jury defined,
119; grand jury, 120; a petit jury,
121; drawing of jury panels, 122; se-

lecting a jury, 123.
Jurisdiction defined, 125; original, 125;

appellate, concurrent, 126; of su-

preme court of State, 133.
Jury: a body of men, usually twelve,

qualified and selected as the law pre-
scribes, impaneled and sworn to try
a matter of fact, and to render their
true verdict according to the evidence

legally given in the case.
Jury, right of trial by, jealously guarded,

118; crimes must be tried by, in Fed-

eral Courts, 318.
Jury commissioners, 80; the sheriff

assists in drawing juries, 74.
Justice : Justice and equity are the same;

but in law the terms are differently
applied. Human laws, though de-
signed to secure justice, are
essarily imperfect; hence an act which
is strictly legal may be far from
equitable or just. Courts of equity
are designed to redress such griev-
ances. Justice contemplates right
according to the established law;
equity contemplates right according

to the law of nature, 368, 370.
Justice, Department of, 297.

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Labor, relation to lockouts and black-

lists, 417.
Lands, public, 325.
Laws, the function of government to

make and execute, 11; called Acts
of Assembly in Pennsylvania, 85;
must conform to the Constitution as
the supreme law, 90; ex post facto,
forbidden, 269; how made, 92, 243,

244; common law, 341.
Legal tender: that money or currency

which the law authorizes a debtor to
offer and requires a creditor to re-

ceive, 252.
Legislation in Pennsylvania, 89; how

checkeil, 89, 90; special legislation

forbidden, 90.
Legislative Department, of township,

48, 52; of borough, 56; of city, 60; of

State, 85-96; of Nation, 229-273.
Legislature of Pennsylvania, 85–96; du-

ties of, 85, 89; sessions of, 86; mem-
bers must not hold other offices, 86;

organization, 87; range of powers, 90.
Liberty defined, 18; and law, 359.
Librarian, State, 109, 115; of Congress,

256, 306.
Lien: a legal claim; a charge upon real

or personal property for the satis
faction of some debt or duty.

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Lieutenant General, 296.
Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania,

presides over the Senate, 87; qualifi-
cations and duties, 98; a member of

various boards, 113, 114, 115.
Life-saving Service, 423.
Lincoln, Abraham, 284, 285, 290, 344,

409, 411, 433; issues the Emancipa-
tion Proclamation, 344; approves
formally the Thirteenth Amendment,

345; coins in honor of, 424.
Lobbying: the urging of the adoption or

passage of a bill by soliciting mem-
bers of a legislative body; usually a

pernicious use of influence.
Local government in Pennsylvania, 40-

81, 363, 364, 365.
Local option: the right of determining

by popular vote within township,
borough, city, or county, whether
alcoholic beverages shall be sold

within the civil division concerned.
Location of the National capital, 440.
Lockouts and blacklists, 417.
Loose constructionists, 263,
Louisiana, has code Napoleon, 341;

wholesale naturalization in, 251;
"grandfather clause" in, 434; other

facts, 284, 342, 435,
Louisiana Purchase, 252.
Lycoming county largest, 71.
Lynching, prompt trial prevents, 341.

Marshal of the United States Court &

Federal sheriff, 316.
Marshall, John, Chief Justice, 272, 408,

Maryland, boundary line of, 27; adopts

the Federal Constitution, 439.
Mason and Dixon Line, 27, 432.
Massachusetts, 27, 259, 336, 347, 439;

has an educational qualification re-

quired of voters, 347, 434.
Mayor, chief executive officer in a city,

59, 63, 65.
McKean, Thomas, advocates adoption

of the Constitution, 438.
McKinley, William, President, 286, 404,
Mechanics' liens, 75.
Medical council, members of, 114.
Memorial Day, 416, 437.
Mercantile appraiser, duties of, 78.
Merchant, defined, 400.
Merit system in consular service, 421.
Messages, the Governor's sent to the

Legislature, 99; of the President to

Congress, 289.
Mexico, Chinese from borders of, 401.
Michigan, gives divided vote, 280.
Military Academy at West Point, 297,

Military board of Pennsylvania, who

composed of, 114.
Militia, of whom composed, 108; the

National Guard a part of, 109; bill
of rights makes possible, 221; sub-
ject to the orders of the President,

Mines, chief of department of, 112.
Minister: a person sent to the capital

of a foreign nation to transact diplo-

matic business.
Ministers, foreign, how appointed, 289;

rank of, 302; duties of, 303; chargé

d'affaires, 303.
Minor: a person who has not attained

the age at which full civil rights are
accorded. If an alien dies after de
claring his intention, his minor chil-
dren and wife become citizens upon

taking the oath required.
Minority: The smaller number, as of a

legislative body;--opposed to major-

ity. State of being under age.
Minority Presidents, 283, 284.

Madison, James, services in framing the

National Constitution, 332, 352, 437;

chosen President in 1809, 438.
Magistrates in cities in Pennsylvania,

Magna Charta, 221, 337, 350, 382-384.
Mahan, Rear Admiral Alfred T., 427.
Majority and plurality defined, 153.
Mandamus : a writ issued by a Superior

Court and directed to an inferior
court, or some corporation or per-
son exercising authority, command-
ing the performance of some specified

duty, 134,
Manila, naval victory at, 407.
Manufactures, 324.
Marcy, William L., 402.
Maritime War, 430.
Marque and reprisal, 261.

ates Court 1

Cice, 272


2, 439.

36. 347.6
cer in a

tes adopi.

f, 114,

sof, 78.

rice 4

sent to 3

Minority representation, 80, 373.
Mints, where located, 252.
Minutes: the record of the proceedings

of some body.
Misdemeanor: a lesser kind of crime; an

indictable offense not amounting to

Mississippi, the “understanding clause,”

Missouri Compromise, 429, 432.
Mixed, or compromise system, 42.
Monarchy, defined, 14; not permitted

to States, 327.
Money, forms and substitutes, 252;

right to coin, 252; punishment for
counterfeiting, 254; can be drawn
from the Treasury only by means of
appropriation laws, 270; amount in

the United States, 391.
Money orders, 256.
Monometallism, prevails, 392, 393.
Monopoly: the exclusive possession of

anything, as a commodity
market; the sole right to buy, sell, or
manufacture any article; growth of,

Monroe Doctrine, 402, 404, 413, 427.
Monroe, James, details of his celebrated

doctrine, 413.
Montojo, Admiral Patricio, 407.
Montour county, smallest, 71.
Monument at Cold Harbor, 365.
Moral rights and duties, 18, 326, 359.
Morris, Gouverneur, 352.
Mortgage: a written instrument secur-

ing the payment of a debt. Should
be signed by husband and wife, ac-
knowledged before a legal officer, and

recorded, 76.
Municipal corporations, 175.
Municipalities, vital problems in, 68.
Murder: the taking of human life un-

lawfully or maliciously with intent
to kill, 127.





rs of

, All

National Conventions, delegates and

committees, 162, 279.
National Guard, the, 108.
National Museum, 308.
Naturalization, 19, 20, 154; require-

ments, 251; of Chinese expressly pro-
hibited, 20; controlled by Congress,
251; wholesale, 251; not essential to

voting, 252.
Nautical Almanac, 299.
Naval Academy, location and course of

study, 300.
Naval Observatory, 299.
Navy, Department of the, 441.
Navy of the United States, 257, 261;

Congress provides and maintains, 257;
officers of, not subject to impeach-
ment, 261; other facts concerning,

261, 299, 300, 402.
Negro suffrage, 346, 434.
Nevada, admitted with only 60,000 in-

habitants, 323.
New England, political units in, 41.
New Hampshire, 272, 336, 434; ratifies

the Federal Constitution, 439.
New Jersey, 13, 314; the Jersey plan,

330; ratifies the Constitution, 438.
New States, admission of, 323; Okla-

homa, 419.
New York, 25, 37; gives narrow majority

for Cleveland, 284; asks for amend-
ments, but ratifies the Federal Con-

stitution, 284, 439.
Nihilism: the negation of all govern-

Nobility, titles of, 222, 271.
Nolle prosequi, “ Will not prosecute": an

entry denoting that the plaintiff dis-
continues his suit, or that the prose-
cutor will go no further with the case.
In a criminal case it discharges the
defendant, but does not operate as an

Nomination, methods of, 160; State

National Conventions, 161; nomina-
tion papers, 163; of Presidential can-
didates, 278; of Presidential Electors,

279; direct, 379.
Nonregistered voters, 149.
Normal schools, 203.
North Carolina, did not prohibit foreign

slave trade, 267; asks for amend-

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Name of Pennsylvania, how given, 30.
Nation, defined, 13; the seed of a,

National banks, 394; bank notes of, not

legal tender, 253; how notes are is-

sued and taxes paid, 394.
National Capitol, 440.

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ments, being slow to ratify Constitu-

tion, 336, 440.
North Dakota, one populist Elector ex-

ercises freedom of choice, 280; black-

listing in, 417.
Northwest Territory, 326.
Notary public, 114, 139.
Nullification, defined, 428; destroyed by

President Jackson, 429.

the estates of persons deceased, and
the protection of the property of
orphans; called also the probate court,

76, 136, 370.
Osgood, Samuel, the first Postmaster-

General, 441.
Overseers of the poor, 48.
Oyer and Terminer: a term used to desig-

nate certain criminal courts which
have jurisdiction in cases of murder,
forgery, robbery, burglary and other
grave crimes, 126.

Oath: a solemn declaration made with

an appeal to God for the truth of
what is affirmed; a solemn promise to
tell the truth, the whole truth, and

nothing but the truth.
Oath of office, a constitutional require-

ment, 139, 234; of Representatives,
234; of Senators, 238; officers take

oath to support the Constitution, 330.
Obligation of contracts, 272.
Occupation tax, defined, 142.
Officers, of election districts, 51; of

townships, 50, 52; of county, 71;
salaries of State, 115, 116; of the
House, 232; of the Senate, 236; of the
army, 296; of the navy, 300; how sup-

plied, 297, 300.
Oklahoma, proclamation by President

Roosevelt on admission of, 419;

largest town of, 420.
Oligarchy, how developed, 385.
Olympia, a famous battleship, 407.
Order of succession, of State officers,

100; to the Presidency, 285.
Ordinance: a local law enacted by a

borough or city council, 56. Also
certain laws passed by Congress un-
der the Confederation: as the Ordi-
nance of 1787 relating to the North-
west Territory, 326, 344, 359; one of
the agencies in the abolition of

slavery, 432.
Oregon, gives one Electoral vote for

Weaver, 280; school fund of, 320;

famous battleship, 259.
Organization of Government in 1789,

Original jurisdiction, defined, 125; of the

State courts, 132, 133; of the Federal

Courts, 311, 314.
Orphans' court: a court which deals with

the proving of wills, the settling of

Panama, the canal, 427; the independ-

ence of, recognized, 427; the Canal

Strip, 428.
Panel: a piece of parchment or a sched-

ule containing the names of jurors
summoned by the sheriff; hence, more

generally, the whole jury, 122.
Paper money, right to issue implied, 252;

various kinds, 253; National bank

notes, 253, 394.
Pardon: an absolute release of a person

from the punishment of a crime of
which he has been convicted; an
official warrant for the remission of

a penalty.
Pardoning power, of the Governor, 99;

of the President, 289.
Parliament, English, example followed,

229; confidence of, 350.
Party, defined, 158; how formed, 158;

organization and campaigns, 159;
how nominations are made, 159, 160;

conventions of, 162; principles of, 263.
Passport: a document issued by the

Secretary of State and under his seal,
informing the world that the bearer
is a citizen of the United States and
travels under such protection. It
secures to bearer all the rights and
privileges granted by treaties with the

various countries.
Patents, how obtained, 256.
Patriotism, its value, 21, 358.
Pearl Harbor, naval base at, 402.
Peck, James H., impeachment of, 239.
Penn, William, founder of the Common-

wealth, 30; receives Pennsylvania
from Charles II, 30; enacts the “Great
Law” by the aid of the people, 35;

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gives a practical constitution, 36;
dies in 1718, 37; claims of heirs settled,

38; principles of government, 361.
Pennsylvania, importance as a State, 24;

boundaries, 25; Mason and Dixon, 27;
named in honor of Admiral Penn, 30;
treaty with Indians, 31; first General
Assembly, 31; early government of,
33-39; system of local government,
42; elemental unit, 45; local govern-
ment in, 40–81; legislative depart-
ment, 85-96; executive department,
96–117; judicial department, 118–137;
voting qualifications in, 141; taxes
in, 168; early constitutions of, 214;
present constitution, i-xxxii; rat-

ifies the Federal Constitution, 438.
Pension, facts concerning, 424.
Perjury: the crime committed by a per-

son who swears willfully, absolutely,
and falsely to the truth of a statement

which he knows to be false.
Petit jury, defined, 121.
Petition, right of, 221, 338.
Philadelphia, leading officials, 63, 64;

public schools of, 65; sessions of su-
perior court and supreme court in, 133,
135; Constitutional Convention met

in, 349.
Philippines, 256, 296, 324.
Pickering, John, impeachment of, 239.
Pinckney, Charles C., 352.
Piracy: robbery on the high seas, 257.
Pittsburg, plan of government of, 65;

sessions of superior and supreme

courts held at, 133, 135.
Plaintiff: the party that begins an ac-

tion in the courts,-opposed to the

defendant, 123.
Platform: a statement of the political

principles upon which a party pro-

poses to stand, 159.
Plurality, defined, 153; elects, 153.
Pocket veto defined, 244,
Police magistrates in cities, 67.
Policemen, constables of the city, 62.
Political parties, 158, 159, 160, 162,

Poll tax, 249; defined, 269.
Poor, care of, 48, 80.
Population, 20, 25, 45, 308.
Ports of entry, 270.

Porto Rico, 256, 324.
“Posse comitatus," defined, 47; by the

sheriff, 74,
Postage stamps, 396.
Postal matter, classes of, 255; rates of

postage, 255, 256, 298.
Postal Savings Banks, 396.
Postmaster-General, order of succession

to the Presidency, 286; duties of,

297, 298.
Postmasters, how appointed, 289, 297;

classes, 298; how salaries are de-

termined, 299; number of, 299.
Post Office Department, 297; universal

Postal Union, 299.
Power, a sovereign, 165; vesting the tax-

ing, 167; military subordinate to civil,
221; excepted, 222; scope of Federal,
226; Congress in regard to Territories,

Powers denied, to Congress, 267-271; to

States, 271; to the Federal Govern-
ment, 426; to both Federal and State

governments, 427.
Powers of Congress alone, 268, 290.
Powers reserved to the people, 342.
Powers, under the Constitution, 426;

concurrent, 426; the three prohibi-
tions, 427; implied and delegated,

Preamble: the introductory clause of a

constitution or statute, which sets
forth the reasons and intent in the
passage of the law. The preamble of
the Constitution is also its enacting
clause, since it gives the act all its

force and effect, 217, xxxiii.
Presentment: a written accusation set

forth by the grand jury, upon its own
initiative, without waiting for a bill of
indictment laid before them by the

district attorney, 120.
President, represents the unity and

power of the Nation, 227, 275; quali-
fications, 275; how chosen, 276–283;
party nominations for, 278; meeting
of Presidential Electors, 280; when
chosen by the Representatives, 282;
changes in method of election sug-
gested, 284; Electoral Count Act, 285;
inauguration of, 286; law of succes-
sion, 285; salary of, 287; official resi-


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