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said courts, and to hold office for three years, subject to removal by a majority of the said judges; the said prothonotary shall appoint such assistants as may be necessary and authorized by said courts; and he and his assistants shall receive fixed salaries, to be determined by law and paid by said county; all fees collected in said office, except such as may be by law due to the Commonwealth, shall be paid by the prothonotary into the county treasury. Each court shall have its separate dockets, except the judgment docket, which shall contain the judgments and liens of all the said courts, as is or may be directed by law.

Sec. 8. The said courts in the counties of Philadelphia and Alle108 gheny, respectively, shall, from time to time, in turn, detail one or more

of their judges to hold the courts of oyer and terminer and the courts of quarter sessions of the peace of said counties, in such manner as may be directed by law.

Sec. 9. Judges of the courts of common pleas learned in the law 109 shall be judges of the courts of oyer and terminer, quarter sessions of

the peace and general jail delivery, and of the orphans' court, and within their respective districts, shall be justices of the peace as to criminal matters.

Sec. 10. The judges of the courts of common pleas, within their 110 respective counties, shall have the power to issue writs of certiorari to

justices of the peace, and other inferior courts not of record, and to cause their proceedings to be brought before them, and right and justice to be done.

Sec. 11. Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, justices 111 of the peace or aldermen, shall be elected in the several wards, districts,

boroughs, and townships, by the qualified electors thereof, at the municipal election, in such manner as shall be directed by law, and shall be commissioned by the Governor for a term of six years. No township, ward, district, or borough shall elect more than two justices of the peace or aldermen, without the consent of a majority of the qualified electors within such township, ward, or borough; no person shall be elected to such office unless he shall have resided within the township, borough, ward, or district, for one year next preceding his election. In cities containing over fifty thousand inhabitants

, not more than one alderman shall be elected in each ward or district.

Sec. 12. In Philadelphia there shall be established, for each thirty 112 thousand inhabitants, one court, not of record, of police and civil

causes, with jurisdiction not exceeding one hundred dollars; such courts shall be held by magistrates whose term of office shall be six years, and they shall be elected on general ticket at the municipal election, by the qualified voters at large; and in the election of the said magistrates no voter shall vote for more than two thirds of the number of persons to be elected when more than one are to be chosen; they shall be compensated only by fixed salaries, to be paid by said county; and shall exercise such jurisdiction, civil and criminal, except as herein provided,

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as is now exercised by aldermen, subject to such changes, not involving an increase of civil jurisdiction or conferring political duties, as may be made by law. In Philadelphia the office of alderman is abolished.

Sec. 13. All fees, fines, and penalties in said courts shall be paid into the county treasury.

Sec. 14. In all cases of summary conviction in this Commonwealth, or of judgment in suit for a penalty before a magistrate or court not of 114 record, either party may appeal to such court of record as may be prescribed by law, upon allowance of the appellate court, or judge thereof, upon cause shown.

Sec. 15. All judges required to be learned in the law, except the judges of the supreme court, shall be elected by the qualified electors 115 of the respective districts over which they are to preside, and shall hold their offices for the period of ten years, if they shall so long behave themselves well; but for any reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for impeachment, the Governor may remove any of them on the address of two thirds of each house of the General Assembly.

Sec. 16. Whenever two judges of the supreme court are to be chosen for the same term of service, each voter shall vote for one only, and when 116 three are to be chosen he shall vote for no more than two; candidates highest in vote shall be declared elected.

Sec. 17. Should any two or more judges in the supreme court, or any two or more judges of the court of common pleas for the same 117 district, be elected at the same time, they shall, as soon after the election as convenient, cast lots for priority of commission, and certify the result to the Governor, who shall issue their commissions in accordance therewith.

Sec. 18. The judges of the supreme court and the judges of the several courts of common pleas, and all other judges required to be 118 learned in the law, shall, at stated times, receive for their services an adequate compensation, which shall be fixed by law, and paid by the State. They shall receive no other compensation, fees, or perquisites of office, for their services from any source, nor hold any other office of profit under the United States, this State, or any other State.

Sec. 19. The judges of the supreme court, during their continuance in office, shall reside within this Commonwealth; and the other 119 judges during their continuance in office shall reside within the districts for which they shall be respectively elected.

Sec. 20. The several courts of common pleas, besides the powers herein conferred, shall have and exercise within their respective dis- 120 tricts, subject to such changes as may be made by law, such chancery powers as are now vested by law in the several courts of common pleas of this Commonwealth, or as may hereafter be conferred upon them by law.

Sec. 21. No duties shall be imposed by law upon the supreme court or any of the judges thereof except such as are judicial; nor shall any 121 of the judges exercise any power of appointment except as herein pro

vided. The court of nisi prius is hereby abolished, and no court of original jurisdiction to be presided over by any one or more of the judges of the supreme court shall be established.

Sec. 22. In every county wherein the population shall exceed one 122 hundred and fifty thousand, the General Assembly shall, and in any

other county may, establish a separate orphans' court, to consist of one or more judges who shall be learned in the law, which court shall exercise all the jurisdiction and powers now vested in or which may hereafter be conferred upon the orphans' court, and thereupon the jurisdiction of the judges of the court of common pleas within such county, in orphans' court proceedings, shall cease and determine. In any county in which a separate orphans' court shall be established, the register of wills shall be clerk of such court and subject to its directions, in all matters pertaining to his office; he may appoint assistant clerks, but only with the consent and approval of said court. All accounts filed with him as register or as clerk of the said separate orphans' court, shall be audited by the said court without expense to parties, except where all parties in intercst in a pending proceeding shall nominate an auditor whom the court may, in its discretion, appoint. In every county orphans' courts shall possess all the powers and jurisdiction of a registers' court, and separate registers' courts are hereby abolished.

Sec. 23. The style of all process shall be “The Commonwealth of 123 Pennsylvania.” All prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and

by the authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and conclude "against the peace and dignity of the same.”

Sec. 24. In all cases of felonious homicide, and in such other crimi124 nal cases as may be provided for by law, the accused, after conviction

and sentence, may remove the indictment, record, and all proceedings to the supreme court for review.

Sec. 25. Any vacancy happening by death, resignation, or other125 wise, in any court of record, shall be filled by appointment by the

Governor, to continue till the first Monday of January next succeeding the first general election, which shall occur three or more months after the happening of such vacancy.

Sec. 26. All laws relating to courts shall be general, and of uniform 126 operations, and the organization, jurisdiction, and powers of all courts

of the same class or grade, so far as regulated by law, and the force and effect of the process and judgments of such courts shall be uniform; and the General Assembly is hereby prohibited from creating other courts to exercise the powers vested by this Constitution in the judges of the courts of common pleas and orphans' courts.

Sec. 27. The parties by agreement filed, may in any civil case dis127 pense with trial by jury, and submit the decision of such case to the

court having jurisdiction thereof, and such court shall hear and determine the same; and the judgment thereon shall be subject to writ of error, as in other cases.

ARTICLE VI

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Impeachment and Removal from Office Sec. 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sec. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation. 129 No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

Sec. 3. The Governor, and all other civil officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such 130 cases shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of trust or profit under this Commonwealth; the person accused, whether convicted or acquitted, shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

Sec. 4. All officers shall hold their offices on the condition that they behave themselves well while in office, and shall be removed on con- 131 viction of misbehavior in office, or of any infamous crime. Appointed officers, other than judges of the courts of record and the superintendent of public instruction, may be removed at the pleasure of the power by which they shall have been appointed. All officers elected by the people, except Governor, lieutenant governor, members of the General Assembly, and judges of the courts of record learned in the law, shall be removed by the Governor for reasonable cause, after due notice and full hearing, on the address of two thirds of the senate.

ARTICLE VII

Oath of Office

Sec. 1. Senators and representatives, and all judicial, State, and county officers, shall, before entering on the duties of their respective 132 offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support, obey, and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this Commonwealth, and that I will discharge the duties of my office with fidelity; that I have not paid or contributed, or promised to pay or contribute, either directly or indirectly, any money or other valuable thing, to procure my nomination or election (or appointment), except for necessary and proper expenses expressly authorized by law; that I have not knowingly violated any election law of this Commonwealth, or procured it to be done by others in my behalf; that I will not knowingly receive, directly or indirectly, any moneys or other valuable thing for the performance or nonperformance of any act or duty pertaining to my office, other than the compensation allowed by law.”

The foregoing oath shall be administered by some person authorized to administer oaths, and in the case of State officers and judges of the supreme court, shall be filed in the office of the secretary of the Commonwealth, and in the case of other judicial and county officers, in the office of the prothonotary of the county in which the same is taken; any person refusing to take said oath or affirmation shall forfeit his office, and any person who shall be convicted of having sworn or affirmed falsely, or of having violated said oath or affirmation, shall be guilty of perjury, and be forever disqualified from holding any office of trust op profit within this Commonwealth. The oath to the members of the senate and house of representatives shall be administered by one of the judges of the supreme court or of a court of common pleas, learned in the law, in the hall of the house to which the members shall be elected.

ARTICLE VIII

Suffrage and Elections

Sec. 1. Every male citizen twenty-one years of age, possessing the 133 following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections, sub

ject however to such laws requiring and regulating the registration of electors as the General Assembly may enact:

First. He shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month.

Second. He shall have resided in the State one year (or, having previously been a qualified elector or native-born citizen of the State, he shall have removed therefrom and returned, then six months), immediately preceding the election.

Third. He shall have resided in the election district where he shall offer to vote at least two months immediately preceding the election.

Fourth. If twenty-two years of age and upwards, he shall have paid within two years a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed at least two months and paid at least one month before the election.

Sec. 2. The general election shall be held biennially on the Tuesday 134 next following the first Monday of November, in each even-numbered

year, but the General Assembly may by law fix a different day, two thirds of all the members of each house consenting thereto: Provided, That such election shall always be held in an even-numbered year.

Sec. 3. All judges elected by the electors of the State at large may 135 be elected at either a general or a municipal election, as circumstances

may require. All elections for judges of the courts for the several judicial districts, and for county, city, ward, borough, and township officers, for regular terms of service, shall be held on the municipal election day; namely, the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each odd-numbered year, but the General Assembly may by law fix a different day, two thirds of all the members of each

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