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power to divide the State into senatorial and representative districts for the election of State senators and members of the house of representatives (43-44), and into judicial districts (105) for the election of judges of the court of common pleas and the orphans' court.

By Act approved February 15, 1906, the number of members in the house of representatives was changed to two hundred and seven, and the State was reapportioned into representative districts as provided by the constitution (45). The purpose of the method therein set forth (44) is to prevent gerrymandering, and it is efficient except in the case of the larger counties and cities. The divisor, two hundred, used in finding the ratio, keeps the number of representatives close to that figure.

In the further exercise of its legal powers, the General Assembly also divides the State into congressional districts for the election of Representatives in the Congress of the United States. By Act of July 11, 1901, the State is divided into thirty-two congressional districts, each electing one member of the House of Representatives in the Congress of the United States.

When an Act Goes into Effect.-An Act of Assembly becomes a law and goes into effect as soon as it has received the signatures of the proper officers required by law, unless some other time is fixed by a special section of the Act. This is sometimes, but not usually, inserted.

Adjournment.-Each house adjourns from time to time without reference to the other, but may not adjourn for more than three days without the consent of the other (41). When the two houses cannot agree upon the time of adjournment, the Governor may adjourn them to such time as he may think proper, not exceeding four months (90).

QUESTIONS

Describe the legislative power in Pennsylvania.

Are the representatives in the General Assembly apportioned by counties? State the rule by which they are apportioned.

How many State senatorial districts are there in this Commonwealth? In which senatorial district do you reside ?

In what respects do the legislatures of the several States resemble each other? Why?

What name is given to the Legislature in Pennsylvania? What is the name given to the lower house?

What provision does the constitution make in respect to the number of senators? How is the number of representatives determined ? How many representatives at present? Is there any question as to the fairness of the apportionment? (“Gerrymandering.") How does the number of senators compare with the number of representatives?

What are the qualifications, length of term, and salary of a State representative? Of a State senator?

Where, when, and how often, does the General Assembly meet? Why is this time of year chosen ?

What are the qualifrcations of senators in Pennsylvania as to age, citizenship, and residence? What circumstances disqualify a person for membership? What are the qualifications of members of the house of representatives? What disqualifies? What is the salary of a senator? Of a representative?

Describe the manner in which the two houses are organized on the first day of the session. How may disorder and disrespect be punished?

What are the powers of the General Assembly?

In what way is the action of the lawmakers limited? What is meant by the term “lobbying”?

What are the provisions of the Constitution and laws of the United States in regard to the election of Federal senators ?

Why should the lieutenant governor's right to vote in the senate be limited ?

By what authority is the State divided into congressional districts?

Upon what subjects may the Legislature of Pennsylvania pass laws?

What prohibitions are placed upon the General Assembly by the State constitution ?

Name some of the subjects upon which the Legislature cannot pass special laws.

How does a bill become a law ?
How are laws made? Give an illustration.

How could the location of the capital of the State be changed? Is it conveniently located ?

In whose name are the laws of the State enacted ? Describe the process of impeachment in this State. Give the number of the senatorial district in which you live, and the name of your senator.

What is the name of your representative? What is the number of his district?

State some powers which can be exercised only by the senate. Name some powers which are reserved to the house of representaCHAPTER X

tives.

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

The Department.—The executive department of the State consists of a Governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of the Commonwealth, attorney-general, auditor-general, State treasurer, secretary of internal affairs, and a superintendent of public instruction (79).

The Governor.—The supreme executive power in the State is vested in the Governor, who is charged with duties of great variety and responsibility. He must take care that the laws are faithfully executed (80). The office of Governor is one of great power and dignity, and affords an opportunity for the display of character and talent.

How and When Elected.—The Governor is chosen by the qualified electors of the State, on the day of the general election, at the places where they vote for members of the General Assembly (80). The election occurs on general election day.

Returns of Election.—The returns of the votes cast for Governor, as they have been collected and counted by the proper officers of the several counties of the State, are sealed up and sent to the seat of government at Harrisburg, directed to the president of the senate, who opens and publishes them in the presence of both houses of the General Assembly (80). Term and Eligibility. The Governor is chosen for a

Am. Cit.—

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term of four years from the third Tuesday of January next following his election, and is not eligible to the office for the next succeeding term (81). He must be a citizen of the United States, at least thirty years old, and for the seven years next preceding his election he must have been a resident of Pennsylvania, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the State or of the United States (83).

Residence and Salary. His business office is in the Executive Building, and official residence at the Governor's Mansion at Harrisburg. His salary is $10,000 per annum.

Lieutenant Governor.—The lieutenant governor is chosen at the same time, in the same manner, and for the same term as the Governor. His qualifications are the same, and he is not eligible to his office for the next succeeding term (82). He is ex officio the president of the senate, but has no vote unless the senate is equally divided. While the office of lieutenant governor under ordinary circumstances is of small dignity, in its possibilities it is of the greatest importance. If the Governor dies, resigns, or for any reason becomes unable to discharge his duties, the powers, duties, and emoluments of the office devolve upon the lieutenant governor (91).

Must Hold no Other Office.—No member of Congress, or person holding any office under the United States or other office in this State can exercise the office of Governor or lieutenant governor (84).

Commander in Chief.—The Governor is commander in chief of the army and navy of the Commonwealth, and of the militia, except when they are called into the actual service of the United States (85).

Power to Appoint Officers.—He may nominate, and, by

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