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nates. The duties of the officials of the various departments are largely indicated by the titles. The department of public safety is subdivided into seven bureaus, namely: police, fire, electrical, city property, building inspection, boiler inspection, and correction. The department of public works has also seven bureaus, namely: gas, lighting, water, filtration, street cleaning, highways, and surveys. The department of supplies purchases all articles and personal property needed in the business of the city government, except books and other specialties for the libraries, museums, and city school system. The department of public health and charities attends to matters relating to public health, charities, almshouses, municipal hospitals and similar institutions under the control of the city. The mayor calls together the heads of the departments at stated times for advice and consultation upon the affairs of the city, and may require reports upon the matters under their control.

The other leading officials of Philadelphia are the controller, the treasurer, the solicitor, and the receiver of taxes. There are also several public commissions, having management and control of various special municipal activities.

Councils in Philadelphia.-Select council consists of as many members as there are wards (46 in 1909), and the members are elected biennially for a term of four years. Each ward sends one member to common council for every 2,000 taxable voters. Members of this branch of the councils are elected for a term of two years.

Magistrates' Courts.-The State constitution abolishes the office of alderman in Philadelphia (112). It provides that there shall be established for each 30,000 inhabitants one court of police and civil causes with jurisdiction not exceeding $100. Such courts shall be held by magistrates

elected on general ticket at the municipal election for a term of six years by the qualified voters. They shall be paid a fixed salary by the county, and shall exercise such civil and criminal jurisdiction as has been hitherto exercised by alder

men.

Constables in Philadelphia.-Each ward of the city elects, in general, two constables to serve for six years. But the 21st, 22d, 23d, and 24th wards elect by separate districts as provided by law.

The Public Schools of Philadelphia.—Under the New Code the public schools of this city are now a part of the general school system of the State. The control of the city system is vested in a board of public education consisting of fifteen members appointed by the judges of the courts of common pleas of the county. There are also local boards of school visitors elected for each ward of the city. A superintendent and six assistant superintendents are elected by the board of education. The tax levy for the support and maintenance of the schools cannot be less than five nor more than six mills upon the assessed valuation of the real estate of the city.

Cities of the Second Class.-Only two of our cities are at present entitled to this rank, Pittsburg and Scranton. An Act of Assembly of 1901 extends the so-called Federal plan to cities of this class. The new charter separates the executive and legislative departments as is the case in the State and National governments. The executive power is vested in the mayor, who is assisted by the heads of the several departments. He is elected for a term of four years, but is not eligible for the next succeeding term. He must be at least twenty-five years of age, and must have been a citizen and resident of the State for five years, and an inhabitant of the

Am. Cit.-5

city for five years next before his election. His powers are extensive, and he may remove from office any head of department, director, or other officer whom he has appointed, transmitting to the city council his reasons for so doing. He is responsible for the good order and efficient government of the city, executing and enforcing the ordinances of the city and the laws of the State. It is his duty to communicate to council, at least once a year, a statement of the finances and general condition of the affairs of the city; to recommend by written message to council such legislation as he may think expedient; to call special meetings of council whenever public necessity may require them. He may also, as often as he may think proper, appoint three competent persons to examine, without notice, the accounts of any department or officer of the city. The mayor approves or disapproves resolutions and ordinances passed by council. A threefifths vote of all members in the legislative branch is neces- . sary in order that any legislation may be repassed over his veto, and the same is true in regard to any item in any appropriation bill of which he may disapprove.

The executive departments are nine in number, as follows: public safety, public works, collector of delinquent taxes, assessors, city treasurer, city controller, law, charities and correction, and sinking fund commission. The departments of public safety and public works have each a head officia! called the director. For convenience in operation these larger departments are divided into several bureaus whose names sufficiently indicate their several spheres. These divisions in the individual cities differ somewhat, but are alike in most respects. Thus, in Pittsburg, the department of public safety has the following bureaus:-police, detectives, fire, electricity, health, and building inspection. In the im

portant department of public works we find the following bureaus:-construction, surveys, highways and sewers, city property, water, water rents, parks, light, and deed registry.

The city solicitor, collector of delinquent taxes, sinking fund commission, and heads of the various departments are appointed by the mayor by and with the advice and consent of the council.

The board of assessors and city controller are chosen by the vote of the people at the regular city elections. It is essential that these officials should be independent of both mayor and council, and responsible alone to the people.

By the new charter bill for cities of the second class the legislative power is vested in a council of nine members for Pittsburg at $6,500 a year each, and five for Scranton at $2,500 a year each. Councilmen are elected at large, and enter office on the first Monday of January. The powers of council are extensive. In case the office of mayor becomes vacant in the last year of the term, the council may fill the vacancy. During a vacancy the president of council acts as mayor. No contracts for the city can be entered into until the council passes the necessary ordinances.

The police power for taking information, making arrests, and preserving the peace is vested in the mayor and five police magistrates, not all of the same political party, to be appointed by the mayor, subject to the approval of the council. The term of office of such magistrates is during good behavior, and until a successor shall be appointed and approved. They serve in such districts as are designated by ordinance, and receive an annual salary fixed by the council.

Corporate Powers.—The corporate powers of all cities are set forth in the general charters granted by the General Assembly to each particular class. The powers enumerated

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in the charter for cities of the second class embrace many common to all cities. Such cities have perpetual succession, may sue and be sued, purchase and hold property, lease, sell, and convey property, make contracts, have and use a corporate seal, and do all other acts necessary to the exercise of their corporate powers. In relation to the enactment of ordinances, the charter for cities of the second class sets forth these powers under forty-three heads. These will well repay careful study in order that the difficulties of municipal government may be understood.

Vital Problems in Cities. The most vital of the great problems in regard to cities is how best to govern such large gatherings of people. Important questions are constantly arising in municipalities, such as:-how to control the corporations that have acquired franchises; the letting and supervision of contracts; the proper care for the criminal and needy classes, constantly increasing in such cities; how to manage the educational interests for the benefit of all; and especially, how to prevent the control of the municipality by political bosses, spoilsmen, and rings. Such questions require the constant exercise of care and study by the best men, and eternal vigilance to settle them and to keep them settled. The charters are the efforts of Pennsylvania to aid its great cities in the solution of such problems.

The forces that attack and pervert the republican form of government are very numerous in cities, and the defensive forces are not always well placed for resistance. The State, by legislative enactments and through certain restrictions embodied in its constitution (180-181), seeks to diminish the evils which appear wherever a large population is densely aggregated (157).

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