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civic league has published a map of the borough which shows in colors the location of every unsightly and unsanitary section. It is planned to have a “clean borough day" June 28, when owners of teams in the borough will be asked to donate their services. Streets will be cleaned, grass and weeds removed, and a general renovation effected.

One of the problems confronting the council is the disposal of garbage, for which no satisfactory means now is employed. The general committee of the league having “clean borough day” in charge is composed of prominent citizens.

The borough authorities have thus received that coöperation desired under similar circumstances by Mayor William Magee in his proclamation, calling on the citizens of Pittsburg to coöperate in making “Clean City Day,” June 28, 1909, a success:

"To produce ideal conditions in governmental matters it is not enough to rely entirely upon the public service; some tasks are necessarily beyond absolute administrative control, and to obtain the greatest degree of success all the people should join in the work. The achievement of individual results is multiplied by the numbers participating."

Ch. VI. Council Committee Approves Street Improvement. The committee on bridges of city councils, Pittsburg, Pa., has af'firmed the ordinance for a contract to rebuild the middle pier of the South Twenty-second street bridge over the Monongahela river.

A contract for a bridge in Meadow street, over Negley Run, was also affirmed, at a cost estimated at $65,000. Ch. VI.

Our Civic Duty.-In an address recently delivered by Mayor Guthrie of Pittsburg he pointed out the duties that devolve upon the citizens and officials of that great community. “A city beautiful, in my eyes, is a city which is immune from disease and vice; a city where moral and intellectual education is cared for, and where young lives are not unnecessarily crushed; a city where we must work with a sense of the moral responsibility which rests

Ch. VI.

upon us."

Congress as a City Council.-In so far as the National capital is concerned, Congress is the city council of Washington, D. C. An instance in point is shown in the recent approval by Congress of a bill authorizing universal street-car transfers in the capital city. Such bills are carefully prepared by the Commissioners of the District of Columbia; and are then submitted by the president of the board of commissioners, for enactment by Congress.

Ch. VI. Of the Duty of the Prosecuting Attorney.-Speaking in words which made for liberty the world over, a great judge of this country, one of the greatest in the English-speaking world, John Bannister Gibson, said: “The prosecuting attorney at the railing of the jury box stands not as the avenger of blood, not as a persecutor; but he stands for the rights of the accused as much as for the rights of the Commonwealth."

Ch. VII. Commissioners Vote to Purchase Land.—The commissioners of Allegheny county have passed a resolution to purchase from the Schenley Farms Company a plot of ground 140 x 289 feet for $280,000. This plot is an addition to a lot of similar size bought by the preceding board of commissioners for the purpose of giving the new Soldiers' Memorial Hall a Fifth avenue frontage.

Ch. VII. Monument at Cold Harbor.—The General Assembly of Pennsylvania, by Act approved June 13, 1907, provided for the erection by the State of Pennsylvania, upon the battlefield of Cold Harbor, Virginia, of a monument to commemorate the services of Pennsylvania soldiers on that field.

The Governor of Pennsylvania, in accordance with the provisions of the Act of Assembly, named Wednesday, October 20, 1909, as the day on which the monument would be dedicated. The Cold Harbor Battlefield Commission in pursuance thereof, issued transportation to all surviving honorably discharged Pennsylvania soldiers who were members of any of the sixteen regiments and batteries of Pennsylvania volunteers who took part in that battle. Thus the veterans were enabled to be present at the

dedication of the monument, and allowed six days to visit Richmond and the battlefields in that vicinity. Chs. IX and X.

Names of Soldiers on Memorial Tablets.—The name of every Pennsylvania soldier who fought in the battle of Gettysburg has been placed on the veterans' memorial recently erected on the field by the State. The names are inscribed on bronze tablets placed around the base of the monument.

Care was taken as to the correct spelling of the names, and that the name of no man who engaged in the battle was omitted. Ch. IX.

The New School Code.-The most important bill before the General Assembly at its recent session (1911) was the New School Code. Its enactment into law in nearly the form in which it came from the Educational Commission is greatly to the advantage of the school interests of Pennsylvania.

The bill drafted by the Pennsylvania State Educational Commission and passed by the Legislature divides school districts into four classes, placing Philadelphia and Pittsburg in the first class. The former has a population of 1,549,008 and the latter a population of 533,905. The second class districts-30,000 or more and less than 500,000 population--embrace fourteen cities. The third class includes all districts having a population of 5,000 or more and less than 30,000. This class embraces eleven cities, one hundred and twelve boroughs, and thirty-nine townships. All the remaining districts have less than 5,000 population, and belong to the fourth class.

The New Code was made the special order of the night in the house (May 17, 1911). The roll was called on final passage and the Code was passed, 138 members voting for it and 49 against it. The legal majority necessary to pass a bill is 104. The Senate, by a vote of 37 to 8, adopted the report of the School Code conferees. To Governor John

To Governor John K. Tener falls the honor of signing this bill. Chs. IX, X, XX, and XXI.

State Should Stop River Pollution. Of what useisit to spend millions of dollars installing filtration plants to purify the public water supply if a single business concern may be permitted to de


file the water at its source in a manner which leaves filtration without effect? The pollution of the water supply is in no respect essential to the prosperity of either our mining or our manufacturing industries. Investigation will probably prove that to get rid of the waste in some other way is not only feasible but easy. It is the business of not only the State but the Federal Government to take measures for the public protection. The State board of health can certainly exercise jurisdiction, and there is surely some officer of the Federal Government—which has jurisdiction over navigable streams—whose province it is to protect streams from pollution, even though interference with navigation is not involved. Both sets of authorities should work in harmony toward this end.

Ch. XI. Our National Bonfires-Conservation of Forests.-An ordinance of William Penn, in the early days of the colony, required that one acre of land be left covered with trees for


five cleared. This wise measure was not followed, however, and there has been much needless destruction of the forests in past years. A strong sentiment has, however, been awakened in favor of forest preservation, and a State department of forestry was created by Act of Assembly in 1901. Since that time the State has been one of the most active and influential in its efforts in behalf of the conservation of the forests. Pennsylvania has a forest preserve of 700,000 acres. A forest renders service in many ways. Its highest usefulness is perhaps reached when it stands as a safeguard against floods and winds, or especially against the dearth of water in streams. The people of the State of New York, through the constitution of 1895, forbid the felling, destruction, or removal of any trees from the State forest preserves in the Adirondack and Catskill woodlands.

What can be done toward the protection of large areas of forested lands has been well established by the work of the Federal Forest Service on the National forests. These cover 185,000,000 acres of public land, and they constitute about one fourth of the forested area of the United States. Fire is the most terrible of all

the foes which attack the woodlands of the United States. Forest fires are due to many different causes. They are often kindled along railroads by sparks from the locomotives. Carelessness on the part of hunters, berry-pickers, and others is also responsible for many fires. The fire loss in the National forests in 1908 was about 110,000 acres, and according to that basis the entire loss in the United States should have been less than 450,000 acres. But in fact the actual area burned over exceeded 7,000,000 acres. What is needed in the matter of forest protection is a system of coöperation between the Federal and the State governments.

Chs. XI and XXIV. Probation Court.-A name commonly applied to the juvenile court. By its action hundreds of dependent, delinquent, and incorrigible children are taken off the streets each year. Many are taken from their parents and either placed in charge of relatives and friends, or sent to industrial or reform schools. The work of this court is philanthropic, and is supported at present by public-spirited citizens and various civic and social organizations. Men who have been instrumental in starting this movement believe that these courts should be supported by the State. The success of the court cannot be disputed. Under the old order of things, children were dragged into court with other prisoners, and treated in much the same manner. The judges of the county courts sit in rotation, and decide what shall be done with the hundreds of children yearly brought before the court. A judge should be elected solely for the purpose of presiding over this court. It is strange that this excellent court still lacks a permanent fund for its maintenance. It should certainly be supported as an integral part of our system of justice. This valuable provision for dealing with juvenile offenders began with the Illinois Juvenile Court Act in 1899, and twenty-four other States have since enacted laws for placing juvenile offenders on probation. By this method many children are rescued from the paths of crime, and there is corresponding benefit to society. Ch. XIII.

Law and Equity.-The distinction between law and equity is

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