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sponded as "the boys" did; and the great soul who yearned over them, -who refused to shoot the sentinels who slept the sleep of childhood,-knew as no one else knew, the precious, glowing stuff out of which his army was made.

There are millions of boys to-day who would respond as promptly and fulfill the same high purpose. “I am the spirit of Youth, with me all things are possible!”

Ch. I. Liberty under Law.-President Butler of Columbia says: “Let us put a bounty on good citizenship by giving it great influence, by rendering it high honor, and by holding it in incomparable esteem. Let these standards be set early in the home and in the school. Before all else keep the inspiring maxim, ' Liberty under Law' in the mind of every American child; and as he grows in power of appreciation, see that he understands what that maxim means and what it involves.

Ch. I. Social Morality.--The right of the State to teach morals in the public schools, wholly or partly on the basis of Biblical ethics, is at bottom the right of self-preservation, because moral nations are those that live. Each State ought by statute to define its own right to instruct its public-school children in the fundamentals of social morality. This plan would not be vulnerable to any charge of infringing religious liberty, because it would stop short of touching religion-it would be limited strictly to the State's own undeniable self-interest. One great sentence in the famous Ordinance of 1787, if enacted by any State, would alone be sufficient legal authority: “Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary for good government, schools and the means of education shall be forever maintained.” Without doubt the place for the State to set forth its moral requirements so as to impress most deeply the masses of its people is in the common school. It is not only the right, but the positive duty of the State to inculcate the social morality which covers justice and truth between man and man in the life here present and visible.

Ch. I. Great Treaty with the Delawares.-This treaty of peace and friendship was made under the open sky, by the side of the Dela

ware, with the sun and the river and the forest for witnesses. Voltaire says of this Shackamaxon treaty, made in 1682, that it was the only treaty between the whites and Indians that was neither sworn to nor broken. It is certain that the Indians were touched by the sacred doctrines of peace, and received the presents of Penn in sincerity and friendship. As they gave the belt of wampum they said: “We will live in love with William Penn and his children, as long as the moon and the sun shall endure."

Ch. II. Civic Pride.—The people of the Keystone State are not lacking in civic pride, nor in appreciation of the valorous deeds of Pennsylvanians of this or the preceding generations. It is true that the State of Pennsylvania has done its full duty in commemorating the deeds of its heroes at Gettysburg, and it has not been lacking in doing honor to those of the earlier days. And the State has been generous in forwarding works of public import, in encouraging education and in charity and benevolence.

None the less, the people of the Commonwealth should arouse themselves to a proper appreciation of their great history. It is not the State that has been remiss, but the people of the various sections. They have not, as New England has, glorified their heroes. They have not, as the people of New England have, erected monuments to tell the stranger within their gates, the glorious history of their ancestors. Pennsylvania's deeds are no less than those of any other State, but the people of Pennsylvania have been more modest in proclaiming them. Modesty is a virtue, in the individual, but lack of civic pride is not to be commended in the people as a body politic. Each section should do honor to its heroes, and take pride in letting the world know their virtues. It is not enough to appreciate our heroic history in our hearts, we should proclaim it unto the world.

Ch. II. Jennie Wade at Gettysburg.-In that supreme struggle of brothers at Gettysburg the wheat fields with their wealth of golden grain were trampled and stained. One of the most noble and yet pathetic instances of life-sacrifice while attending to duty is com

memorated by the monument erected to Jennie Wade, the only woman killed in that battle. During the first two days of the conflict she had carried water to the wounded Union soldiers near the house, and had helped in caring for the sick and wounded. On the third day, while molding loaves of bread in the kitchen, she was struck by a bullet and instantly killed.

Ch. II. General Braddock's Grave.-Patriotic citizens of Fayette county have succeeded in raising $1,250 with which to purchase several acres of mountain land, in the center of which lie the remains of General Braddock, who was wounded in the battle of Braddock’s field and carried back into the mountains, seven miles east of Uniontown, where he died and was buried.

The resting place of the British general was originally marked by an oak tree, but this was broken off by a storm in 1868. A fence now surrounds the grave.

Fayette county citizens subscribed money to purchase the ground, fearing that some day the relations of Braddock might attempt to remove the remains and erect over them a monument upon the scene of the famous battle in which the general was wounded. General Braddock may have used poor judgment; the expedition he led against Fort Duquesne certainly was a failure. However, the general proved himself to be a man of remarkable courage and he displayed a spirit that amounted to heroism. Furtherinore, the expedition was one of greater or less historical importance, and for these reasons the people of Fayette county are justified in commemorating with a monument the immediate events that terminated in the general's death. Doubtless there are other points that similarly might well be marked lest their historical significance be lost, and in order that they may be readily located.

Ch. II. Penn's Principles of Government. In all the history of the American colonies, Penn's was the broadest and best scheme of colonization. His two principles of government were: “First, to terrify evil-doers; secondly, to cherish those who do well. I know some say: ‘Let us have good laws, and no matter for the men that

execute them.' But let them consider that though good laws do , well, good men do better.”

Ch. III. Government in the Colonies.—At the time of the Declaration of Independence there were three different kinds of government in the colonies. Rhode Island and Connecticut were true republics. Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland presented under the Proprietors the appearance of limited hereditary monarchies. New York, Virginia, and the other six colonies were practically vice-royalties, with the governors appointed by the king. But in all the colonies alike the people elected the Legislatures.

Amid such variety of opinions and principles, all the political sagacity and good temper of the people was required to keep the country from a period of anarchy. The "Continental Congress" was a most remarkable body of men with which no other revolutionary body save the Long Parliament can be compared.

Ch. III. Local Government has Developed around the School.-In the early days of Pennsylvania, the prevailing form of local government was the county. When the township made its appearance as the natural agency by which the needs of the immediate locality might be met, the county was too strong to suffer encroachments upon its organization. It retained its board of county commissioners chosen by the people. The townships in our State do not conduct the business of the county through their representatives as in New York. Nor do the voters in the townships hold annual town meetings and participate directly in the management of their local affairs. They choose their local officers biennially, but with the act of election their power ends. The township in this State is a representative government. It has always been found to be an institution of great convenience, especially in relation to the public school. Local government in the Southern States developed around the courthouse, and in the New England States around the church; but in Pennsylvania it has developed around the school.

Ch. IV. Local Assessors soon Begin Their Work.-"The regular ap

praisal of real estate in Butler county will be begun by the assessors in the various districts of the county in September. The assessors will fix the valuation of all real estate in the county.

“The county commissioners are now getting ready for the assessors. The various books and blanks are being prepared, and, by the time the assessors are ready to go out, all details will be arranged.

"The assessors serve under special instructions based on the State law. This law is definite in the matter of fixing valuation. and declares plainly that property shall be assessed according to its market value.

“It is possible that a meeting of the assessors will be called as was done before the last assessment, and a conference held as to the exact duties of assessors and the basis on which valuations shall be fixed.” Butler, Pa., Aug. 19, 1909. Chs. V and VII.

Local Officers and the Laws.—The proper way to make a good law better or to get rid of a bad one is to enforce it in letter and spirit. That is a most dangerous and unwarranted power which municipal and other local officials sometimes arrogate of deciding what laws should be enforced and when. Local sentiment has no right thus to express itself. Local officials should be under some sort of check and supervision against this tendency.

It ought to be possible for even a small minority of citizens to bring before the courts or other high authorities any derelict local administrative official and, upon showing his refusal to enforce the laws, to have him removed from his position.

The recent attitude of the mayor of one of our coast cities is a notable instance in which this power of modified recall might well have been invoked. Here local, and not at all the proper interests, inspired the mayor to overrule and nullify the law of the State. And wholly aside from the question whether a wide open Sunday is better or worse than the more restricted sort, is the matter of law enforcement.

Ch. VI. “ Clean Borough Day" in Wilkinsburg.—The Wilkinsburg

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