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Write the names of the different kinds of taxes.
When does Congress practically serve as a city council? How is the District of Columbia governed?
What are the delegated powers of Congress?
What is a tariff? Distinguish between specific and ad valorem duties. What is meant by reciprocity ?
Under what circumstances is the Government justified in borrowing?
What are United States bonds? What is money?
When was the first Bank of the United States chartered? When was the first National bank organized in the United States?
Discuss the topics: money, bankruptcy, weights and measures, public credit, and commerce.
What State has been annexed? What States had no territorial government before admission?
Give some examples of wholesale naturalization.
Describe the circumstances under which Louisiana was acquired. State some facts concerning the acquisition of Florida; Texas, California; Hawaii; Porto Rico, the Philippines.
Suppose your gold certificate should be burned, would the Government gain or lose?
Which do you see more frequently, gold certificates or silver certificates? What was the smallest amount for which you ever saw a gold certificate? The largest amount?
Is a United States bank note legal tender for all debts? What is the penalty for counterfeiting it? Where was the note you examined printed?
Why should a voter be a citizen of the United States ?
What does the Constitution say about naturalization? What are the laws on the subject ?
Define treason; letters of marque and reprisal; the writ of habeas corpus.
How does the Government borrow money? How much does the Government owe, and what is the form of the debt? Has Congress power to prohibit commerce with one or more nations ? When did Congress prohibit American merchant ships from leaving port?
How are National banks organized? What is meant by the term
legal tender? Is there a standard pound in this State? A standard bushel?
Look on the back of a greenback for the law about counterfeiting. Is there any law against passing counterfeits?
When was our Post Office Department established? Who was placed at the head of it? Who is the present Postmaster-General ? What is meant by the term Presidential offices in speaking of post offices ?
What are the present rates of postage in the United States? How much does it cost to send a letter to England ?
When were postal cards introduced ?
Is this book copyrighted? What things besides books are copyrighted ? Name some book that is not copyrighted. How is a copyright secured? How long does a copyright continue in force? How may it be renewed ?
What is a patent? How may an inventor secure time to perfect his invention? Name five important patented inventions. What effect does the expiration of a patent have upon the price of the article? Is it unfair that an inventor should make a fortune out of his invention?
In what way do patents and copyrights promote the progress of science and the useful arts?
Could Congress establish more than one Supreme Court? By what authority does Congress organize Territorial Courts? Who is the Federal judge for this district ?
What is piracy? Who may punish a pirate? Can a pirate claim the protection of the American flag? What protection is afforded by letters of marque and reprisal?
Give arguments in favor of the militia system, as against that of a large standing army. What circumstances favor us in adopting the militia system? What noted instances of great volunteer armies can you mention ?
Where are the officers of the army educated ? Give an estimate of the total strength of the regular army. Who has charge of the War Department?
Where are most of the naval officers educated? How does the navy of the United States compare with the navies of other great powers?
Name some of the most famous ships mentioned in the naval history of the United States.
What is the difference between military law and martial law?
What is meant by the term demonetization of silver? What is the silver certificate ?
What are the implied powers of Congress? How do they differ from delegated powers ?
What is an express or delegated power of Congress? Name four express powers of Congress, and three implied powers.
What power has Congress over government property ?
Why was the capital of the United States placed under the exclusive control of Congress?
Hamilton claimed that the United States could establish banks under the “elastic or sweeping clause.” What is this clause?
How are new issues absorbed by the great parties? Give one great illustration.
State the principles held by the great political parties. Name the minor parties, and state the principles held by each.
What were the political views of Thomas Jefferson? Of Alexander Hamilton ?
Distinguish between a “boss” and a leader.
Describe the permanent organization of a political party. Name two great parties, and tell wherein they differ in principles.
Name some of the great politicians who have made political history. Who are the leaders at the present time?
POWERS DENIED TO CONGRESS AND THOSE
DENIED TO STATES
The Slave Trade. At the time of the adoption of the Constitution, the majority of the members of the Convention were in favor of leaving Congress free to prohibit the importation of slaves. Laws prohibiting the foreign slave trade had been passed by all the States except North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. As it was desirable to bring as many States as possible into the Union, and very doubtful whether these States would agree to the Constitution were Congress left free to prohibit the slave trade at once, and as some influential New Englanders were engaged in this traffic, it was at last agreed that the slave trade should be left open for twenty years. A duty of ten dollars might be imposed on every slave imported (J ?).
At the earliest possible time Congress exercised its power for terminating the foreign slave trade. The tax permitted was never imposed. A law was passed in 1807, to go into effect January 1, 1808, making the importation of slaves unlawful. In 1820, the African slave trade was declared piracy, and made punishable by death. The result of the Civil War was the abolition of slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment has made this clause of historic value only.
Habeas Corpus.—The object of the clause concerning habeas corpus (J 2) is to protect people from unjust imprison
ment. Every person upon being arrested for alleged crime has the right to immediate hearing as to whether there is sufficient cause for his detention or imprisonment. This right is enforced by a writ of habeas corpus, an order directing the officer who has the person in his custody to bring the body—the person-into court and to show cause for his detention. So important is this right, that it can be suspended only in cases of rebellion or invasion, when the public safety demands it (J?). The writ takes its name from the words habeas corpus, “have the body,” found in the old Latin form.
While stating that the writ of habeas corpus can be suspended only in times of rebellion or of invasion by a foreign army, when the public safety may require it, the Constitution does not specify who has the right to suspend this writ. In the early days of the Civil War, in order to prosecute successfully the war for the preservation of the Union, President Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus by ordering military officers not to give up persons arrested on charges of disloyalty, even when judges issued the proper writs. Many strong Union men protested against this action, and declared that the President deliberately violated the Constitution. The truth is that no written frame of government could meet completely the terrible needs of a great civil war, and perhaps it was necessary to bend the Constitution to avoid breaking it. It is now agreed, however, that this power of suspension of the writ belongs to Congress alone. Even in the case of Lincoln's suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, Congress fully sustained him in the exercise of the power; for afterward a law was passed legalizing his acts and giving him power to continue such suspensions of the writ.
Bills of Attainder.-A bill of attainder is an act of the Legislature by which the punishment of death or outlawry is