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cie payments in 1878 a large number of the greenbacks were redeemed and permanently retired. When the amount had been reduced to $346,000,000, Congress passed an Act requiring that thereafter any of the notes redeemed should be reissued. Greenbacks are receivable for all debts and public dues, and are redeemed in coin at the Treasury on demand.

Counterfeiting the coin and securities of the country is a serious crime. The law against counterfeiting provides a penalty of a maximum fine of five thousand dollars and imprisonment for not more than ten years (I %).

Weights and Measures.-Congress has the power to fix the standards of weights and measures. The United States standards of weights and measures are accurate copies of the English standards. The English system has become so firmly fixed as the result of several centuries of use that any change would be exceedingly difficult. Congress made the use of the metric system permissive in 1866; but, although its use is quite general among scientific men, the system has never become popular (I 5).

Post Offices and Postage.—The common expression, “the United States mail,” recognizes the single authority of the Government in the control of mail routes and post offices, and the establishment of a complete postal system (I ?). The first cognizance which the United States takes of its new territory is in the mail service. When the savage finds the mail carrier calling at his back door, he may consider himself on the way to civilization. Even in the wilder parts of our vast domain the system of “toting” by private enterprise soon gives way to government carriers, and the people rejoice in far Alaska when the charge of one dollar a letter reduces to the trifle charged by our postal rates. The present rate for a letter sent to any part of the United States is two

cents. Five cents postage will send a letter to any of the civilized countries of the world.

All mailable matter is divided into four classes. Firstclass matter consists of letters and other written matter, sealed or unsealed, and all other matter sealed or fastened in any manner not easily examined. Its rate of postage is two cents per ounce or fraction thereof; except on postal cards, and on local or drop letters where there is no free delivery, in which cases the rate is one cent. Second-class mail matter consists of newspapers and periodicals issued not less than four times a year from a known office of publication. Such matter may be mailed by the public at one cent for each four ounces, but publishers and news agents may mail it for one cent a pound. Publications sent to actual subscribers within the county where published are free from postage unless mailed for local delivery at a letter-carrier office. Thirdclass matter is books, circulars, proof sheets, corrected proofs. engravings, etc. The postage on this class is one cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof. Fourth-class matter includes merchandise, samples, and all mailable matter not included in the other classes. The limit of weight is four pounds, and the postage rate is one cent per ounce.

Special-delivery stamps are soldat post offices at ten cents additional postage. These entitle the letters to immediate delivery by special messenger to any point within a mile of a post office. Letters or any other mail matter may be registered at the rate of ten cents for each package. Such matter is carried with special precautions against loss. It can readily be traced, since every person who handles it must receipt for it. In case of loss of first-class registered matter, the Government will pay its value up to fifty dollars. The registry system reaches every post office in the world.

Domestic money orders are issued at money order post offices for sums not exceeding one hundred dollars at rates from three to thirty cents above the sum of money to be sent. The system provides an absolutely safe and convenient means of transmitting money.

Domestic rates of postage apply to Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Tutuila, Porto Rico, Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, the “Canal Zone,” the Republic of Panama, and Shanghai, China. The letter rate to Great Britain and Ireland is two cents an ounce or fraction thereof. Germany has the twocent rate when letters are exchanged by sea direct.

All civilized countries are included in the Postal Union. To most foreign countries the postage rates are for letters, five cents for the first ounce or fraction thereof, and three cents for each additional ounce; postal cards two cents each; second and third-class matter, two ounces for one cent.

Rural free delivery of letters has become a permanent branch of the postal administration. The annual appropriation for this service is twenty-five millions of dollars, and exceeds that provided for city free delivery; the number of carriers is also greater. The rural service, with daily delivery and collection, is in operation on thirty-six thousand routes and extends its benefits to over three million families. Persons desiring the benefits of service on a rural delivery route are required to furnish, at their own expense, boxes for the reception of mail to be delivered or collected by the carrier.

Copyrights and Patents. The exclusive control of copyrights and patents is given to Congress. Copyrights are secured through the Librarian of Congress, and give the exclusive right to print, publish, and sell the book or other production for twenty-eight years. A copyright may be extended for an additional twenty-eight years if desired.

Applications for patents are made to the Commissioner of Patents. A patent gives the inventor the exclusive right to make and sell his invention for the period of seventeen years. By filing a caveat in the Patent Office, an inventor may protect his invention while maturing the same (I 8).

Inferior Courts.-Congress has power to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court. These are: Circuit Courts of Appeals, District Courts, the Court of Claims, Court of Customs Appeals, Commerce Court, Courts of the District of Columbia, Territorial, and Consular Courts (I' and P).

Piracies.-Congress has the power to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations. It is right that these matters of admiralty and international law should be placed under the control of the National Government (I 19).

War Powers.—Congress has the power to declare war (I 11), to raise and support armies (I 12), to provide and maintain a navy (I 13), and to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces (I 14). Thus the security and defense of the country is amply provided for. The President is the commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States. But he must look to Congress for the laws providing for the establishment and maintenance of the same. No appropriation of money for the support of an army can be made for a term longer than two years (I 12). Thus the President and Congress cannot long carry out a war policy which the people disapprove, for the next Congressional election would reverse it.

Army and Navy.--Although the President is commander in chief, and has complete control of the army and navy of the United States, he never takes the field himself, but intrusts the direction and control to officers appointed by him,

Am. Cit.-17

reserving only to himself the right to interpose in exceptional

cases.

Man for man the army of the United States challenges comparison with any army in the world. It is in an excellent state of efficiency, and an American citizen has no cause to apologize for the personnel, courage, and discipline of the army of his country. Should an emergency arise, it will not be found wanting. It is, indeed, small as compared with the population of the country; but this is because it is purposely kept in the form which can be most rapidly changed into an organization for the field. It is much stronger in cavalry and artillery in proportion to the infantry than it would be for campaign purposes. This is because, were we to engage in war, it would take a comparatively short time to increase our infantry arm, but a much longer time to increase the cavalry and artillery branches of the line. In time of war, when the patriotism of the youth of the nation is aroused, there has rarely been difficulty in enlisting all the men that were needed for an emergency. Each cavalry and infantry regiment has a detachment of machine-gun experts. The total strength of the different branches of the service in 1909 was as follows: Total enlisted men in cavalry, 13,266; coast artillery, 19,321; field artillery, 5,245; infantry, 26,616; engineers, 2,002; additional strength, 6,816. Total in the line of the army, 73,266. The staff departments add 4,477, making a total of 77,743 in staff and line. The law provides that the strength of the army shall not exceed 100,000.

In addition to the regular army, Congress has power to call into service the militia or citizen-soldiery of the United States (I 15). In the broadest sense of the term, the militia comprises all the able-bodied male citizens of the States between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. The President

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